Stone walls

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Stone Walls / 石垣

This is a subtype of Features

Ishigaki are one of the most impressive features of any castle. The skill it took to make them from cutting and collecting the stones to actually building the walls in a myriad of shapes, terrains, and locations, is truly remarkable. The fact that there are still so many stone walls remaining after hundreds of years attests to the skill of their builders too. You can even read the history of a castle from its ishigaki. The type of stone tells you where it came from, markings on the stones tell you who it was cut or gathered for, and the method of building the walls can also tell you in what period they were constructed or by whom. Even in the same castle, you may see walls constructed with different methods indicating who built them and when. You can also find unique stories buried in the stone walls at many castles like the old woman who donated her grinding stone or Buddhist statues that were procured from temples to fill in the walls.

Below is a description of the main styles and types of stone walls. There are also a few sub-categories and rare types not discussed here that I may put together for a future page.

Basic Structure

The pictures below are from a display at Kanazawa Castle that show how the stone walls are constructed. You can see that the stones are much longer and larger than they appear from the outside. Smaller stones are filled in between the larger stones to stabilize them. Extra stones are backfilled behind them for drainage to help prevent erosion and smaller stones are also filled into the spaces in the front to stabilize the larger stones. Note that there is no mortar used. This allows the stone walls to have some flexibility which is what has helped them to survive for hundreds of years in earthquake prone Japan.

Kanazawa4.jpg Kanazawa5.jpg


The style of wall indicates the pattern of how the stones are arranged. These two patterns below are used with all of the different types explained in the next section.

Ranzumi (乱積み)

The stones used are of various sizes so that there is no particular pattern to the face of the stone wall.

Kofu16.jpg Takamatsu23.jpg Takeda15.jpg

Nunozumi (布積み)

Most of the stones are roughly the same size so that they line up across the face of the wall.

Kanazawa25.jpg Matsuyama18.jpg Marugame76.jpg


Stone walls can be categorized by how much the stones are processed to fit together in the wall. Walls that use unprocessed stones tend to be older, while walls that make use of more highly shaped stones are newer making use of newer techniques and tools.

Nozurazumi (野面積み)

These walls use unshaped stones. They are either stones that were used in their natural shape or were split without any further shaping. This type of wall is comparatively weak and high walls cannot be built. It also provides many footholds and handholds making it relatively easy for attackers to climb.

Kofu16.jpg Komoro15.jpg Maruoka6.jpg Marugame60.jpg

Uchikomihagi (打込接ぎ)

The stones are pounded tightly into place and the corners and rough edges are smoothed some to help them fit together better. The face of the stone is also chipped away to make it more flat. The remaining holes are filled with smaller stones to tightly fill the gaps. This makes a stronger wall than Nozurazumi and these walls can be built higher.

Edo44.jpg Osaka33.jpg Ueda15.jpg Kanazawa2.jpg

Kirikomihagi (切込接ぎ)

In this type of wall, all the stones are heavily processed and shaped to fit exactly with the surrounding stones. There are almost no holes or empty spaces and no smaller uncut stones filling the spaces between stones. Since water cannot seep out through the spaces they often needed to build in some holes for drainage.

Edo38.jpg Kanazawa12.jpg Edo81.jpg Shirakawa11.jpg


This is basically a special type of Kirikomihagi where all the stones are cut with five or six sides and fitted together.

Tanizumi / Otoshizumi

The stones are fit together at an angle so they have a diagonal pattern instead of horizontal. It takes advantage of the weight of the stones to hold them in place. This construction was actually comparatively easy and often used in the later Edo Period.

Tamaishizumi (玉石積み)

This method uses river stones that were naturally shaped by the river to be round. The only castle I know of that makes use of this is Yokosuka Castle in Shizuoka Pref.


Castles with Stone Walls

  1. Aizu Wakamatsu Castle
  2. Akashi Castle
  3. Aki Castle
  4. Akizuki Castle
  5. Akizuki Domain South Detached Palace
  6. Ako Castle
  7. Akutagawasan Castle
  8. Amagajo
  9. Amagasaki Castle
  10. Aoyagi Castle
  11. Arato Castle
  12. Arikoyama Castle
  13. Aya Castle
  14. Azuchi Castle
  15. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  16. Chiba Castle
  17. Chiran Castle
  18. Echizen Katsuyama Castle
  19. Echizen Ohno Castle
  20. Edo Castle
  21. Fukuchiyama Castle
  22. Fukui Castle
  23. Fukuoka Castle
  24. Fukuyama Castle
  25. Funai Castle
  26. Fushimi Castle
  27. Futamata Castle
  28. Ganjaku Castle
  29. Gassan Toda Castle
  30. Gifu Castle
  31. Goryokaku Fort
  32. Gujo Hachiman Castle
  33. Hachigata Castle
  34. Hachioji Castle
  35. Haga Castle
  36. Hagi Castle
  37. Haibara Castle
  38. Hamada Castle
  39. Hamamatsu Castle
  40. Hanakuma Castle
  41. Hanamaki Castle
  42. Hanazono Castle
  43. Hayashikojo Castle
  44. Hayashiohjo Castle
  45. Hida Kojima Castle
  46. Hikone Castle
  47. Himeji Castle
  48. Hirado Castle
  49. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  50. Hirosaki Castle
  51. Hiroshima Castle
  52. Hitoyoshi Castle
  53. Hizen Kashima Castle
  54. Hizen Nagoya Castle
  55. Hyakusaiji Castle
  56. Ibuka Castle
  57. Ichijodani Castle
  58. Ichinomiya Castle
  59. Iga Ueno Castle
  60. Iida Castle
  61. Imabari Castle
  62. Inawashiro Castle
  63. Innoshima Suigun castle
  64. Inuyama Castle
  65. Ioyama Castle
  66. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  67. Itami Castle
  68. Iwakitaira Castle
  69. Iwamura Castle
  70. Iyo Matsuyama Castle
  71. Izushi Castle
  72. Kagoshima Castle
  73. Kakegawa Castle
  74. Kameda Castle
  75. Kamei Castle
  76. Kameyama Castle
  77. Kaminoyama Castle
  78. Kamioka Castle
  79. Kanaiyama Castle
  80. Kanayama Castle
  81. Kanazawa Castle
  82. Kanbe Castle
  83. Kaneyama Castle (Mutsu)
  84. Kannonji Castle
  85. Kanou Castle
  86. Karasawayama Castle
  87. Karasuyama Castle
  88. Karatsu Castle
  89. Kasama Castle
  90. Kasumi Castle
  91. Katsunumashi Yakata
  92. Katsuren Castle
  93. Kawahara Castle
  94. Kawanoe Castle
  95. Kawashima Castle
  96. Kinojo
  97. Kirihara Castle
  98. Kishiwada Castle
  99. Kitanosho Castle
  100. Kitsuki Castle
  101. Kiyosu Castle
  102. Kochi Castle
  103. Kofu Castle
  104. Kokokuji Castle
  105. Kokura Castle
  106. Komaki Castle
  107. Komatsu Castle
  108. Komoro Castle
  109. Konomine Castle
  110. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  111. Koromo Castle
  112. Koyama Castle
  113. Kubota Castle
  114. Kuma Castle
  115. Kumamoto Castle
  116. Kurume Castle
  117. Kushima Castle
  118. Kuwana Castle
  119. Maebashi Castle
  120. Marugame Castle
  121. Maruoka Castle
  122. Masujima Castle
  123. Matsue Castle
  124. Matsukura Castle
  125. Matsumae Castle
  126. Matsumoto Castle
  127. Matsuo Castle
  128. Matsusaka Castle
  129. Matsushiro Castle
  130. Mihara Castle
  131. Miharu Castle
  132. Minakuchi Castle
  133. Minakuchi-Okayama Castle
  134. Minowa Castle
  135. Mizuban Castle
  136. Morioka Castle
  137. Moriyama Castle
  138. Motosu Castle
  139. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  140. Murakami Castle
  141. Mutsu Obama Castle
  142. Naegi Castle
  143. Nagahama Castle
  144. Nagoya Castle
  145. Najima Castle
  146. Nakagusuku Castle
  147. Nakamura Castle
  148. Nakatsu Castle
  149. Nakijin Castle
  150. Nanao Castle
  151. Natsukawa Castle
  152. Nihonmatsu Castle
  153. Niitakayama Castle
  154. Nijo Castle
  155. Nishio Castle
  156. Niwase Castle
  157. Nobeoka Castle
  158. Nochiseyama Castle
  159. Numata Castle
  160. Obama Castle
  161. Obata Jin'ya
  162. Obi Castle
  163. Oda Castle
  164. Odani Castle
  165. Odawara Castle
  166. Ogaki Castle
  167. Oguchi Castle
  168. Ogura Castle
  169. Ogurayama Castle
  170. Ojima Jin'ya
  171. Oka Castle
  172. Okayama Castle
  173. Okazaki Castle
  174. Oko Castle
  175. Omi Hachiman Castle
  176. Ono Castle
  177. Oogo Castle
  178. Oohara Castle
  179. Oomizo Castle
  180. Ori Castle
  181. Osaka Castle
  182. Oshi Castle
  183. Otaki Castle
  184. Ozu Castle
  185. Rikan Castle
  186. Saga Castle
  187. Saiki Castle
  188. Sakamoto Castle
  189. Sanada Palace
  190. Sanadahonjo Castle
  191. Sannohe Castle
  192. Sano Castle
  193. Sasayama Castle
  194. Sashiki Castle
  195. Seiryuin
  196. Sekiyado Castle
  197. Sendai Castle
  198. Shibata Castle
  199. Shigetsu Fushimi Castle
  200. Shigiyama Castle
  201. Shimabara Castle
  202. Shimotsui Castle
  203. Shinagawa Battery Islands
  204. Shirakawa Castle
  205. Shiroishi Castle
  206. Shishiku Castle
  207. Shoryuji Castle
  208. Shuri Castle
  209. Soma Nakamura Castle
  210. Sonobe Castle
  211. Sukegawakaibou Castle
  212. Sumoto Castle
  213. Sunomata Castle
  214. Sunpu Castle
  215. Suzaki Battery
  216. Tahara Castle
  217. Takada Castle (Niigata)
  218. Takamatsu Castle
  219. Takaoka Castle
  220. Takasaki Castle
  221. Takashima Castle
  222. Takatori Castle
  223. Takatsuki Castle
  224. Takayama Castle (Gifu)
  225. Takayama Castle (Hiroshima)
  226. Takayama Jin'ya
  227. Takeda Castle
  228. Takenaka Jinya
  229. Tamaru Castle
  230. Tanabe Castle
  231. Tanba Kameyama Castle
  232. Tateyama Castle (Yamagata)
  233. Tatsuno Castle
  234. Tatsuoka Castle
  235. Tenpaku Castle
  236. Toba Castle
  237. Tobayama Castle
  238. Toishi Castle
  239. Tokushima Castle
  240. Tomioka Castle
  241. Tottori Castle
  242. Toyama Castle
  243. Tsu Castle
  244. Tsuchiura Castle
  245. Tsukikuma Castle
  246. Tsukui Castle
  247. Tsumagi Castle
  248. Tsutsujigasaki Palace
  249. Tsuwano Castle
  250. Tsuyama Castle
  251. Uda Matsuyama Castle
  252. Ueda Castle
  253. Urado Castle
  254. Usuki Castle
  255. Uwajima Castle
  256. Wakayama Castle
  257. Washio Castle
  258. Yagi Castle
  259. Yamabe Castle
  260. Yamabukioh Castle
  261. Yamagata Castle
  262. Yamato Koriyama Castle
  263. Yamazaki Castle
  264. Yanagawa Castle
  265. Yashima Castle
  266. Yatsushiro Castle
  267. Yodo Castle
  268. Yogaisan Castle
  269. Yokosuka Castle
  270. Yonago Castle
  271. Yoshida Castle
  272. Yumurayama Castle
  273. Zakimi Castle
  274. Zeze Castle
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