Difference between revisions of "Trenches"

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|Japanese Name=空堀
 
|Japanese Name=空堀
 
|Property Type=Features
 
|Property Type=Features
|Description=Trenches, earthworks, empty moats, or dry moats cover a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles.  In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water.  Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages.  it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and no natural water sounds to disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb.  
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|Description=Trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats are one type of earthworks that cover a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles.  In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water.  Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages.  For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only  slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.  
  
When you see a lot of photos on this site or visit these locations yourself you may think these trenches wouldn't be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have probably filled with leaves and dirt and been eroded significantly over the last 400 years.  What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.   
+
When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years.  What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.   
  
 
Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:
 
Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:
  
* '''Horikiri''' (堀切): this is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge.  You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless a signs there to point them out or you are used to seeing them you might not notice them but if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in the ridge is unnatural.  
+
 
 +
==== Horikiri (堀切) ====
 +
This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge.  You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.  
 +
 
 
[[file:kuma4.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:kuma4.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:washio26.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:washio26.jpg|150px]]
* '''Yokobori''' (横堀): a horizontal trench across a  slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.   
+
 
 +
 
 +
==== Yokobori (横堀) ====
 +
A horizontal trench across a  slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.   
 +
 
 
[[file:koshigoe9.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:koshigoe9.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:iwabitsu33.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:iwabitsu33.jpg|150px]]
* '''Tatebori''' (竪堀): a vertical trench running up and down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.  
+
 
 +
 
 +
==== Tatebori (竪堀) ====
 +
A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.  
 +
 
 
[[file:iwabitsu34.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:iwabitsu34.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:haibara16.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:haibara16.jpg|150px]]
* '''Unejotatebori''' (畝状竪堀): several tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are running down the steep side of a castle you may not be able to get to them.
+
 
 +
 
 +
==== Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀) ====
 +
Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.
 +
 
 
[[file:jofukuji26.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:jofukuji26.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:kuma23.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:kuma23.jpg|150px]]
* '''Shojibori''' (障子堀): a wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using energy.
+
 
 +
 
 +
==== Shojibori (障子堀) ====
 +
A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too.  Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at [[Yamanaka Castle]] in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.
 +
 
 
[[file:yamanaka7.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:yamanaka7.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:yamanaka8.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:yamanaka8.jpg|150px]]
* '''Unebori''' (畝堀): a trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.  
+
 
 +
 
 +
==== Unebori (畝堀) ====
 +
A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.  
 +
 
 
[[file:kawamura3.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:kawamura3.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:kawamura9.jpg|150px]]
 
[[file:kawamura9.jpg|150px]]
  
  
<table class="structurethumbs">
+
==== Empty Moats (空堀) ====
<tr><td colspan="4" class="SThumbTitle"><b>Dry Moats</b>
+
These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.  
</td></tr>
+
 
<tr>
+
[[file:nagoya16.jpg|150px]]
<td><a href="/photos/view/347-Nagoya-Castle"><img src="http://media.jcastle.info/images/nagoya/nagoya11-h.jpg" /></a> Nagoya Castle</td>
+
[[file:sakura2.jpg|150px]]
<td><a href="/photos/view/"><img src="http://media.jcastle.info/images/nagoya/nagoya16-h.jpg" /></a>Nagoya Castle</td>
+
[[file:osaka22.jpg|150px]]
<td><a href="/photos/view/106-Sakura-Castle"><img src="http://media.jcastle.info/images/sakura/sakura2-h.jpg" /></a>Sakura Castle</td>
+
 
<td><a href="/photos/view/789-Mito-Castle"><img src="http://media.jcastle.info/images/mito/mito1-h.jpg" /></a>Mito Castle</td>
 
</tr>
 
</table>
 
 
}}
 
}}

Revision as of 17:40, 29 October 2017

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

Trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats are one type of earthworks that cover a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

150px Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches

  1. Aizu Odayama Castle
  2. Akagi Kita Castle
  3. Akagi Minami Castle
  4. Akatsuka Castle
  5. Akizuki Castle
  6. Akutagawasan Castle
  7. Ansho Castle
  8. Aoyagi Castle
  9. Aoyama Castle
  10. Aragaito Fort
  11. Arashi Castle
  12. Arikoyama Castle
  13. Aruga Castle
  14. Asaba Castle
  15. Asahi Castle
  16. Ashigara Castle
  17. Asonuma Castle
  18. Asuke Castle
  19. Azuchi Castle
  20. Azumi Kameyama Castle
  21. Azumi Nishimaki Castle
  22. Azumi Nishiyama Castle
  23. Azumi Taya Castle
  24. Baba Yashiki
  25. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  26. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  27. Chigasaki Castle
  28. Chihaya Castle
  29. Chikuma Awaji Castle
  30. Chikuma Kushiki Castle
  31. Chikuma Osaka Castle
  32. Chikuma Takasu Castle
  33. Chikuma Takayama Castle
  34. Chikuma Takeda Castle
  35. Chikuma Ueda Castle
  36. Chikuma Uenoyama Castle
  37. Chikuzen Sakata Castle
  38. Chojayama Castle
  39. Choujayashiki Yakata
  40. Dainenji Yakata
  41. Echizen Ohno Castle
  42. Ema Yakata
  43. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  44. Fujita Castle
  45. Fukazawa Castle
  46. Fukuyo Castle
  47. Funaoka Castle
  48. Funaokayama Castle
  49. Funayama Castle
  50. Furuwatari Castle
  51. Futamata Castle
  52. Futoge Castle
  53. Futohyama Castle
  54. Ganjaku Castle
  55. Gassan Toda Castle
  56. Gifu Castle
  57. Gion Castle
  58. Gobara Castle
  59. Gokan Castle
  60. Haba Castle
  61. Hachigata Castle
  62. Hachikenchōja Castle
  63. Hachioji Castle
  64. Hagi Castle
  65. Hagikura Fort
  66. Haibara Castle
  67. Hakusan Castle
  68. Hakusan Castle (Harima)
  69. Hamada Castle
  70. Hanamaki Castle
  71. Hanawa Castle
  72. Hanazono Castle
  73. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  74. Hanishina Terao Castle
  75. Haranomoto Castle
  76. Hasedo Castle
  77. Hatakenaka Yakata
  78. Hatayama Castle
  79. Hatsuzawa Castle
  80. Hayaotoshi Castle
  81. Hayashikojo Castle
  82. Hayashiohjo Castle
  83. Hekirichi Jinya
  84. Hida Kojima Castle
  85. Hirai Castle
  86. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  87. Hirase Castle
  88. Hisawa Castle
  89. Hitachi Yorii Castle
  90. Horigane Yakata
  91. Houzouji Yakata
  92. Hyakusaiji Castle
  93. Ibuka Castle
  94. Ichinomiya Castle
  95. Igawa Castle
  96. Iida Castle
  97. Iida Fort
  98. Iinawa Castle
  99. Imai Castle
  100. Ina Akasu Castle
  101. Ina Inamura Castle
  102. Ina Joumura Castle
  103. Ina Kasuga Castle
  104. Ina Kitano Castle
  105. Ina Kiyomizu Castle
  106. Ina Koide Castle
  107. Ina Kokuro Castle
  108. Ina Korin Castle
  109. Ina Kurata Castle
  110. Ina Matsuo Castle
  111. Ina Matsushima Castle
  112. Ina Minowa Castle
  113. Ina Muraoka Castle
  114. Ina Nakagome Castle
  115. Ina Ohkubo Castle
  116. Ina Omotegi Castle
  117. Ina Shimono Castle
  118. Ina Sokura Castle
  119. Ina Suganuma Castle
  120. Ina Suzuoka Castle
  121. Ina Takada Castle
  122. Ina Tanagi Castle
  123. Ina Yasuoka Castle
  124. Inamurafuru Castle
  125. Inuinofuru Castle
  126. Inukai Castle
  127. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  128. Ishigami Castle
  129. Isobe Castle
  130. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  131. Itousakaue Fort
  132. Iwabitsu Castle
  133. Iwadono Castle
  134. Iwamura Castle
  135. Izu Nagahama Castle
  136. Jindaiji Castle
  137. Jofukuji Castle
  138. Joumurafuru Castle
  139. Jounoue Fort
  140. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  141. Kamimakifuru Castle
  142. Kanaiyama Castle
  143. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  144. Kanayama Castle
  145. Kanazawa Castle
  146. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  147. Kannonji Castle
  148. Karakai Castle
  149. Karasawayama Castle
  150. Karasuyama Castle
  151. Kariya Castle
  152. Kasama Castle
  153. Kasane Castle
  154. Kaseyama Castle
  155. Kashiwara Castle
  156. Kasugayama Castle
  157. Kasumi Castle
  158. Katsunuma Castle
  159. Katsunumashi Yakata
  160. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  161. Kawahara Castle
  162. Kawamura Castle
  163. Kazurayama Castle
  164. Kirihara Castle
  165. Kita Kumai Castle
  166. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  167. Kogane Castle
  168. Koike Fort
  169. Koiwatake Castle
  170. Kokokuji Castle
  171. Komaki Castle
  172. Komoro Castle
  173. Konomine Castle
  174. Konosumiyama Castle
  175. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  176. Koshigoe Castle
  177. Koyama Castle
  178. Kozukue Castle
  179. Kubota Castle
  180. Kuma Castle
  181. Kumamoto Castle
  182. Kunohe Castle
  183. Kurita Castle
  184. Kurobane Castle
  185. Kuroi Castle
  186. Kururi Castle
  187. Kuwabara Castle
  188. Mamabe Castle
  189. Manago Castle
  190. Mariko Castle
  191. Masugatayama Castle
  192. Masuo Castle
  193. Matsuida Castle
  194. Matsukura Castle
  195. Matsuo Castle
  196. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  197. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  198. Minagawa Castle
  199. Minami Kumai Castle
  200. Minami Majino Castle
  201. Minami Sakaide Castle
  202. Minochi Aiki Castle
  203. Minochi Masugata Castle
  204. Minokubi Castle
  205. Minowa Castle
  206. Mito Castle
  207. Miyahara Castle
  208. Mizuban Castle
  209. Mizuki
  210. Mogusa Castle
  211. Morioka Castle
  212. Moriya Castle
  213. Moriyama Castle
  214. Moroto Castle
  215. Motosakura Castle
  216. Motosu Castle
  217. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  218. Mumo Castle
  219. Musashi Masugatayama Castle
  220. Mutsu Iwasaki Castle
  221. Myogi Castle
  222. Nabekura Castle
  223. Naegi Castle
  224. Nagabayashi Fort
  225. Nagashino Castle
  226. Nagoya Castle
  227. Nagurumi Castle
  228. Najima Castle
  229. Naka Castle
  230. Nakagaya Yakata
  231. Nakahara Yakata
  232. Nakasai Castle
  233. Nakatou Castle
  234. Narisawa Castle
  235. Nasu Kanda Castle
  236. Nata Castle
  237. Niitakayama Castle
  238. Nijo Castle (Tochigi)
  239. Nirayama Castle
  240. Nishijo Castle
  241. Nishikata Castle
  242. Nishina Castle
  243. Nochiseyama Castle
  244. Numata Castle
  245. Oba Castle
  246. Obata Castle
  247. Obata Jin'ya
  248. Obiki Castle
  249. Oda Castle
  250. Odaka Castle
  251. Odani Castle
  252. Odano Castle
  253. Odawara Castle
  254. Odoi
  255. Oeda Castle
  256. Ogawa Castle
  257. Ogimachi Castle
  258. Ogoe Castle
  259. Oguchi Castle
  260. Ogura Castle
  261. Oh'ide Castle
  262. Oh'idefuru Castle
  263. Ohguma Castle
  264. Ohikemurayama Castle
  265. Ohkusa Castle
  266. Ohmine Castle
  267. Oike Fort
  268. Okami Castle
  269. Okkoshi Castle
  270. Oko Castle
  271. Omori Castle
  272. Oniba Castle
  273. Oogo Castle
  274. Oohara Castle
  275. Oomizo Castle
  276. Ori Castle
  277. Osaka Castle (Ibaraki)
  278. Otawara Castle
  279. Owari Ohno Castle
  280. Rikan Castle
  281. Ryusenji Castle
  282. Saimyoji Castle
  283. Sakasai Castle
  284. Sakata Castle
  285. Sakura Castle
  286. Sakurazakaue Fort
  287. Sanada Palace
  288. Sanadahonjo Castle
  289. Sano Castle
  290. Sarashina Osaka Castle
  291. Sasao Castle
  292. Sasayama Castle
  293. Sashiki Castle
  294. Sasou Castle
  295. Sawayama Castle
  296. Seirin Fort
  297. Seiryuin
  298. Seiryuji Yakata
  299. Sekinomori Castle
  300. Senpuku Castle
  301. Setagaya Castle
  302. Shakujii Castle
  303. Shigiyama Castle
  304. Shimizu Castle
  305. Shimomakifuru Castle
  306. Shimura Castle
  307. Shinano Chausuyama Castle
  308. Shingu Castle
  309. Shinpu Castle
  310. Shiozaki Castle
  311. Shiozakishin Castle
  312. Shishiku Castle
  313. Shiwa Castle
  314. Soma Nakamura Castle
  315. Sugaya Yakata
  316. Sugiyama Castle
  317. Suwa Imori Castle
  318. Suwa Kami Castle
  319. Suwa Osaka Castle
  320. Suwa Owa Castle
  321. Suwa Sakura Castle
  322. Suwa Shimo Castle
  323. Suwa Takagi Castle
  324. Suwa Takei Castle
  325. Suwa Tezuka Castle
  326. Suwahara Castle
  327. Tage Castle
  328. Takagifuru Castle
  329. Takagiuchi Castle
  330. Takaharasuwa Castle
  331. Takahata Castle
  332. Takai Castle
  333. Takamifuru Castle
  334. Takane Castle
  335. Takatenjin Castle
  336. Takato Castle
  337. Takatome Castle
  338. Takatori Castle
  339. Takatsuki Castle (Tokyo)
  340. Takayama Castle (Gifu)
  341. Takayama Castle (Hiroshima)
  342. Takeda Castle
  343. Takei Castle
  344. Taki Castle
  345. Takiyama Castle
  346. Tamaru Castle
  347. Tanagura Castle
  348. Tateyama Castle (Yamagata)
  349. Tatsuno Castle
  350. Tenjinyama Castle
  351. Tenjinyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  352. Tenpaku Castle
  353. Toba Yakata
  354. Tobiyama Castle
  355. Todoroki Castle
  356. Toishi Castle
  357. Tokiwa Castle
  358. Tokura Castle
  359. Tonojima Castle
  360. Tonomi-no-saku
  361. Torigoe Castle
  362. Torinji Castle
  363. Tsukui Castle
  364. Tsumagi Castle
  365. Tsumago Castle
  366. Tsutsujigasaki Palace
  367. Tsuwano Castle
  368. Uda Matsuyama Castle
  369. Ueda Castle
  370. Uehara Castle
  371. Uenotaira Castle
  372. Urizura Castle
  373. Ushiku Castle
  374. Usui Castle
  375. Usuida Shukuuchi Fort
  376. Washi Castle
  377. Washio Castle
  378. Yagi Castle
  379. Yamabe Castle
  380. Yamabukiko Castle
  381. Yamabukioh Castle
  382. Yamagami Castle
  383. Yamagata Castle
  384. Yamagata Castle (Hitachi)
  385. Yamanaka Castle
  386. Yamazaki Castle
  387. Yanagawa Castle
  388. Yanagizakaue Fort
  389. Yato Castle
  390. Yogaisan Castle
  391. Yoshida Castle
  392. Yoshida Castle (Ibaraki)
  393. Yoshinogari
  394. Yoshinohori Yashiki
  395. Yoshinomachi Yakata
  396. Yumurayama Castle
  397. Yunagaya Jin'ya
  398. Yuzawa Castle
  399. Yuzuki Castle
  400. Zen Castle
  401. Zeze Castle
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