Trenches

From Jcastle.info

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

The term karabori Trenches in general covers a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles and may also be called trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats in English. Karabori are dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori.Property "Glossary-Definition" (as page type) with input value "dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori." contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

Nagoya11.jpg Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches
  1. Aiki Castle (Minochi)
  2. Akagi Kita Castle
  3. Akagi Minami Castle
  4. Akasu Castle (Ina)
  5. Akatsuka Castle
  6. Akayama Jin'ya
  7. Akechi Osayama Castle
  8. Akiba Fort (Azumi)
  9. Akiyoshi Fort
  10. Akizuki Castle
  11. Akutagawasan Castle
  12. Amabiki Castle
  13. Amanari Castle
  14. Ametoya Castle
  15. Amidagamine Castle (Yamashiro)
  16. Ansho Castle
  17. Aoiyama Castle
  18. Aoki Castle (Azumi)
  19. Aoyagi Castle
  20. Aoyama Castle
  21. Aoyama Castle (Nagato)
  22. Aoyama Castle (Omi)
  23. Ara Castle (Ina)
  24. Ara Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  25. Aragaito Fort
  26. Araihara Castle
  27. Arashi Castle
  28. Aratoshou Castle
  29. Arikoyama Castle
  30. Aruga Castle
  31. Asaba Castle
  32. Asahi Castle (Chikuma)
  33. Asahi Moated Settlement
  34. Asahiyama Castle
  35. Asahiyama Castle (Kai)
  36. Asaka Castle (Chikuma)
  37. Asakura Yakata
  38. Ashigara Castle
  39. Ashikaga Masauji Yakata
  40. Ashinoya Jin'ya
  41. Asonuma Castle
  42. Asuke Castle
  43. Awaji Castle (Chikuma)
  44. Awaya Yakata
  45. Awazawa Castle (Suwa)
  46. Ayukawa Castle (Koka)
  47. Azuchi Castle
  48. Baba Yashiki
  49. Binmanji Castle
  50. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  51. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  52. Bue Yakata (Totomi)
  53. Chausudate
  54. Chausuyama Castle (Nukata)
  55. Chausuyama Castle (Shinano)
  56. Chigasaki Castle
  57. Chihaya Castle
  58. Chikatou Fort
  59. Chikusa Castle
  60. Choujayama Castle
  61. Choujayashiki Yakata
  62. Dainenji Yakata
  63. Damine Castle
  64. Deura Castle
  65. Dokyou Castle
  66. Dousawa Fort
  67. Eboshigata Castle
  68. Echizen Ohno Castle
  69. Egawa Fort
  70. Ema Yakata
  71. Enryakuji Higashitani Fort
  72. Enryakuji Kitatani Fort
  73. Enryakuji Nishitani Fort
  74. Fubukikaito Castle (Ina)
  75. Fuchu Castle (Hitachi)
  76. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  77. Fujita Castle
  78. Fukakusa Yakata
  79. Fukayama Castle (Suruga)
  80. Fukazawa Castle
  81. Fukui Castle (Shinano)
  82. Fukuju Fort (Odani Castle)
  83. Fukushima Castle (Kiso)
  84. Fukuyo Castle
  85. Fumimichi Castle
  86. Funaoka Castle
  87. Funaokayama Castle
  88. Funayama Castle
  89. Furujouyama Castle (Hanishina)
  90. Furumiya Castle
  91. Furumiya Castle (Kai)
  92. Furuwatari Castle
  93. Fusumada Castle
  94. Futamata Castle
  95. Futatsugi Castle (Azumi)
  96. Futoge Castle
  97. Futoh'yama Castle
  98. Futsukamachi Castle
  99. Ganjaku Castle
  100. Ganryakuji Castle
  101. Gassan Toda Castle
  102. Genbao Castle
  103. Gentairi Castle
  104. Gifu Castle
  105. Gion Castle
  106. Gobara Castle
  107. Goi Castle (Mikawa)
  108. Gokan Castle
  109. Gongen Yakata
  110. Goryu Castle
  111. Gouda Fort
  112. Haba Castle
  113. Habauehori Yashiki
  114. Hachigata Castle
  115. Hachikenchōja Castle
  116. Hachiman'yama Castle (Tanba)
  117. Hachimanpara Jinsho
  118. Hachioji Castle
  119. Hadanashi Castle
  120. Hadanashiyama Castle
  121. Hagi Castle
  122. Hagikura Fort
  123. Hagiwarasuwa Castle
  124. Haguro Castle (Owari)
  125. Haibara Castle
  126. Hakota Castle (Kozuke)
  127. Hakoyama Castle (Takai)
  128. Hakusan Castle
  129. Hakusan Castle (Harima)
  130. Hamada Castle
  131. Hamagawa Castle
  132. Hanagoya Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  133. Hanamaki Castle
  134. Hanaoka Castle (Azumi)
  135. Hanaoka Castle (Saku)
  136. Hanasaki Castle (Tsuru)
  137. Hanawa Castle
  138. Hanazono Castle
  139. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  140. Haneo Castle
  141. Harano Castle (Suwa)
  142. Haranomoto Castle
  143. Haruyamako Castle
  144. Haruyamaoh Castle
  145. Hasedo Castle
  146. Hatada Castle (Omi)
  147. Hatakenaka Yakata
  148. Hatayama Castle
  149. Hatsuzawa Castle
  150. Hattori Castle (Koka)
  151. Hayaotoshi Castle
  152. Hayashikojo Castle
  153. Hayashiohjo Castle
  154. Hekirichi Jinya
  155. Hekitani Castle
  156. Hida Castle (Omi)
  157. Higashi Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  158. Higashijou Castle (Chikuma)
  159. Hijika Castle
  160. Hijiyama Castle (Iga)
  161. Hikaru Castle
  162. Hiki Castle
  163. Hikida Castle
  164. Hikobe Yashiki
  165. Hikone Castle
  166. Hime Castle (Chikuma)
  167. Hime Castle (Hanishina)
  168. Hinode Castle
  169. Hinohara Castle
  170. Hirai Castle
  171. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  172. Hiraide Moated Settlement
  173. Hiraizumi Date
  174. Hirakura Castle
  175. Hirase Castle
  176. Hirase Kitano Castle
  177. Hirose Castle (Hida)
  178. Hisawa Castle
  179. Hishakuyama Castle
  180. Hitomoshi Castle (Saku)
  181. Hiyama Castle
  182. Hojo Clan Residence
  183. Horigane Yakata
  184. Horikoshi Castle
  185. Hoshina Maenoyama Fort
  186. Hosogaya Yakata
  187. Hosokawashiroyama Castle
  188. Houzouji Yakata
  189. Hyakusaiji Castle
  190. Ibarayama Castle
  191. Ibayama Castle
  192. Ibuka Castle
  193. Ichijodani Castle
  194. Ichijodani Kojo Castle
  195. Ichijodaniyama Castle
  196. Ichinomiya Castle
  197. Igawa Castle
  198. Iida Castle
  199. Iida Castle (Azumi)
  200. Iida Fort
  201. Iimori Castle
  202. Iimori Castle (Azumi)
  203. Iinawa Castle
  204. Iizuna Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  205. Ijiri Yashiki
  206. Ikarashi Yakata
  207. Ikeda Castle (Mino)
  208. Ikenoshiri Yakata
  209. Ima Castle (Mino)
  210. Imai Castle
  211. Imai Fort
  212. Imori Castle (Suwa)
  213. Imoto Castle (Omi)
  214. Ina Yashiki
  215. Inamura Castle (Ina)
  216. Inamurafuru Castle
  217. Inoue Castle
  218. Inoue Yakata
  219. Inoue Yakata (Shiga)
  220. Inuinofuru Castle
  221. Inukai Castle
  222. Ioto Castle
  223. Iouji Fort
  224. Isezaki Castle (Sanada)
  225. Ishibashi Castle
  226. Ishibayama Castle (Omi)
  227. Ishida Castle (Mikawa)
  228. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  229. Ishigami Castle
  230. Ishikawa Jouzan Yashiki
  231. Ishimura Castle
  232. Isobe Castle
  233. Isshiki Castle (Omi)
  234. Isshiki Castle (Suruga)
  235. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  236. Itousakaue Fort
  237. Iwabitsu Castle
  238. Iwabuchi Castle (Aida)
  239. Iwadono Castle
  240. Iwahara Castle (Azumi)
  241. Iwaki Taira Castle
  242. Iwakiri Castle
  243. Iwamura Castle
  244. Iwasaki Castle (Hanishina)
  245. Iwasaki Castle (Mutsu)
  246. Iwazu Castle
  247. Iwazushin Castle
  248. Izaki Castle
  249. Izu Nagahama Castle
  250. Izumigashira Castle
  251. Jikouin Fort
  252. Jikouin Yakata
  253. Jindaiji Castle
  254. Jizen Castle (Koka)
  255. Jofukuji Castle
  256. Jouhikage Fort
  257. Joujou Castle
  258. Joumura Castle (Ina)
  259. Joumurafuru Castle
  260. Jounoue Fort
  261. Kaesa Castle
  262. Kagamiyama Fort
  263. Kakegawako Castle
  264. Kakiage Castle (Chikuma)
  265. Kakutsugawa Castle
  266. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  267. Kamagatake Castle
  268. Kamaha Castle
  269. Kamei Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  270. Kameyama Castle
  271. Kameyama Castle (Azumi)
  272. Kameyama Castle (Mikawa)
  273. Kami Castle (Suwa)
  274. Kamigishimoto Castle (Omi)
  275. Kamimakifuru Castle
  276. Kaminogou Castle
  277. Kamogatake Castle
  278. Kanaiyama Castle
  279. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  280. Kanayama Castle
  281. Kanayama Castle (Echigo)
  282. Kanazawa Castle
  283. Kanbara Castle
  284. Kanbayashi Castle
  285. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  286. Kanemaru Yakata
  287. Kaneyama Castle (Mino)
  288. Kanmuriyama Castle (Bitchu)
  289. Kannonji Castle
  290. Karakai Castle
  291. Karasaki Castle
  292. Karasawayama Castle
  293. Karasuyama Castle
  294. Karatoriya Castle
  295. Karidako Castle
  296. Karidaoh Castle
  297. Kariya Castle
  298. Kariyahara Castle
  299. Kasama Castle
  300. Kasane Castle
  301. Kaseyama Castle
  302. Kashiwara Castle
  303. Kashiwayama Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  304. Kasuga Castle (Ina)
  305. Kasugayama Castle
  306. Kasumi Castle
  307. Kasumiga Castle (Suwa)
  308. Katsumata Castle
  309. Katsunuma Castle
  310. Katsunumashi Yakata
  311. Katsurao Castle (Hanishina)
  312. Katsurayama Castle
  313. Katsuyama Castle (Echigo)
  314. Katsuyama Castle (Nagato)
  315. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  316. Katsuyama Castle (Yatsushiro)
  317. Kawahara Castle
  318. Kawajiri Castle
  319. Kawamura Castle
  320. Kazurayama Castle
  321. Keirozan Castle
  322. Kemurino Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  323. Kibune Castle
  324. Kikkawa Motoharu Yakata
  325. Kinebuchi Yakata
  326. Kirarazaka Castle
  327. Kirihara Castle
  328. Kita Kumai Castle
  329. Kita Majino Castle
  330. Kita Wakamiko Castle
  331. Kitaaranami Fort
  332. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  333. Kitabodaiji Castle (Omi)
  334. Kitano Castle (Ina)
  335. Kitanosho Castle (Omi)
  336. Kitasudayama Castle (Omi)
  337. Kitatsumeno Fort
  338. Kitsune Castle (Azumi)
  339. Kiyomizu Castle (Ina)
  340. Kiyosaki Castle (Echigo)
  341. Kobinata Oh'yashiki
  342. Koga Castle
  343. Kogamine Castle (Kyoto)
  344. Kogane Castle
  345. Kogane Castle (Mikawa)
  346. Kohyama Castle
  347. Koibuchi Castle
  348. Koide Castle (Ina)
  349. Koike Fort
  350. Koiwatake Castle
  351. Kojima Castle (Hida)
  352. Kokokuji Castle
  353. Kokururi Castle
  354. Kokuryou Castle (Tanba)
  355. Kokuzousan Castle (Aida)
  356. Kokuzousan Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  357. Kokuzousanminami Fort (Aida)
  358. Kokuzousannanseioneno Castle (Aida)
  359. Kokuzousannishi Fort (Aida)
  360. Komaki Castle
  361. Komaki Castle (Chiisagata)
  362. Komakijou Ohte Fort
  363. Komakikamino Castle (Chiisagata)
  364. Komasawa Castle
  365. Komatsu Castle (Sagami)
  366. Komihanachi Castle
  367. Komori Yakata (Sarashina)
  368. Komoro Castle
  369. Kongouji Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  370. Konishi Castle (Ina)
  371. Konosumiyama Castle
  372. Koori Nishiyama Castle
  373. Koraku Castle
  374. Korin Castle (Ina)
  375. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  376. Koromogawa Date
  377. Koshibami Castle
  378. Koshigoe Castle
  379. Kosobu Yakata
  380. Kosodeonzakijinja Castle
  381. Kosuge Castle
  382. Koujin'o Castle
  383. Kounomine Castle
  384. Kouyama Castle (Bingo)
  385. Koya Castle
  386. Koya Castle (Chikuma)
  387. Koyama Castle
  388. Koyama Castle (Kai)
  389. Kozubeta Castle
  390. Kozukue Castle
  391. Kozutsumi Castle
  392. Kubo Castle (Mikawa)
  393. Kubodera Castle
  394. Kubota Castle
  395. Kubota Castle (Nukata)
  396. Kuboyashikishi Castle (Koka)
  397. Kukuri Castle
  398. Kuma Castle
  399. Kumamoto Castle
  400. Kuno Castle
  401. Kunohe Castle
  402. Kurahone Castle
  403. Kurata Castle (Ina)
  404. Kurita Castle
  405. Kurobane Castle
  406. Kuroi Castle
  407. Kurokawashi Castle (Koka)
  408. Kurono Castle
  409. Kuruma Castle
  410. Kuruma Castle (Hanishina)
  411. Kurumayama Castle (Hanishina)
  412. Kururi Castle
  413. Kushiki Castle (Chikuma)
  414. Kutsukake Castle
  415. Kuwabara Castle
  416. Kuwagatahara Noroshidai
  417. Kuwai Castle (Mikawa)
  418. Kyara Palace
  419. Kyouraishiminbu Yakata
  420. Machimura Fort
  421. Maeda Battery
  422. Makabe Castle
  423. Mamabe Castle
  424. Mamushizuka Castle
  425. Manago Castle
  426. Mariko Castle
  427. Marikoyama Fort
  428. Marune Castle
  429. Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  430. Maruyama Castle (Ina)
  431. Maruyama Douen Castle
  432. Maruyama Fort (Kai)
  433. Maruyama Noutou Castle
  434. Masugata Castle (Minochi)
  435. Masugata Castle (Musashi)
  436. Masugata Castle (Suwa)
  437. Masugata Castle (Takai)
  438. Masugatayama Castle
  439. Masuo Castle
  440. Matsudai Castle (Echigo)
  441. Matsudaira Castle
  442. Matsuida Castle
  443. Matsukura Castle
  444. Matsuo Castle
  445. Matsuo Castle (Ina)
  446. Matsuoyama Castle
  447. Matsushima Castle (Ina)
  448. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  449. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  450. Meiseireijin Fort
  451. Mibuno Castle (Iga)
  452. Mikka Castle (Minochi)
  453. Mikkaichiba Castle
  454. Minagawa Castle
  455. Minakuchi Okayama Castle
  456. Minami Kumai Castle
  457. Minami Majino Castle
  458. Minami Sakaide Castle
  459. Minami Tsuda Castle
  460. Minamoto no Tsunemoto Yakata
  461. Minebata Castle
  462. Minegadou Castle
  463. Minokubi Castle
  464. Minowa Castle
  465. Minowa Castle (Ina)
  466. Misaka Castle
  467. Misayama Castle
  468. Mitake Castle (Kai)
  469. Mito Castle
  470. Miyahara Castle
  471. Mizuban Castle
  472. Mizuki
  473. Mochikoshi Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  474. Mochizuki Castle (Koka)
  475. Mochizuki Castle (Saku)
  476. Mochizukishi Castle (Koka)
  477. Mogusa Castle
  478. Momochi Tamba Castle
  479. Mondo Castle (Azumi)
  480. Monjuyama Castle
  481. Monomi Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  482. Morioka Castle
  483. Moriya Castle
  484. Moriyama Castle
  485. Moriyama Castle (Izu)
  486. Moriyama Castle (Owari)
  487. Moroto Castle
  488. Motai Castle (Hanishina)
  489. Moto Castle (Chikuma)
  490. Motodoriyama Castle
  491. Motodoriyamako Castle
  492. Motosakura Castle
  493. Motosu Castle
  494. Motoyama Castle (Chikuma)
  495. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  496. Mumo Castle
  497. Muraoka Castle (Ina)
  498. Murasame Castle (Koka)
  499. Muro Castle
  500. Myogi Castle
... further results
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