Trenches

From Jcastle.info

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

The term karabori Trenches in general covers a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles and may also be called trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats in English. Karabori are dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori.Property "Glossary-Definition" (as page type) with input value "dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori." contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

Nagoya11.jpg Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches
  1. Aida Iwabuchi Castle
  2. Aizu Odayama Castle
  3. Akagi Kita Castle
  4. Akagi Minami Castle
  5. Akatsuka Castle
  6. Akechi Osayama Castle
  7. Akizuki Castle
  8. Akutagawasan Castle
  9. Amabiki Castle
  10. Ametoya Castle
  11. Ansho Castle
  12. Aoyagi Castle
  13. Aoyama Castle
  14. Aragaito Fort
  15. Arashi Castle
  16. Aratoshou Castle
  17. Arikoyama Castle
  18. Aruga Castle
  19. Asaba Castle
  20. Asahiyama Castle
  21. Ashigara Castle
  22. Asonuma Castle
  23. Asuke Castle
  24. Azuchi Castle
  25. Azumi Aoki Castle
  26. Azumi Futatsugi Castle
  27. Azumi Iwahara Castle
  28. Azumi Kameyama Castle
  29. Azumi Kitsune Castle
  30. Azumi Mondo Castle
  31. Azumi Nagao Castle
  32. Azumi Nakamura Castle
  33. Azumi Nishimaki Castle
  34. Azumi Nishiyama Castle
  35. Azumi Ogiwara Castle
  36. Azumi Ogura Castle
  37. Azumi Oshino Castle
  38. Azumi Sano Castle
  39. Azumi Shibutami Castle
  40. Azumi Shironomine Castle
  41. Azumi Takisawa Castle
  42. Azumi Tanoiri Castle
  43. Azumi Taya Castle
  44. Baba Yashiki
  45. Bingo Kouyama Castle
  46. Bitchu Kanmuriyama Castle
  47. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  48. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  49. Chausudate
  50. Chigasaki Castle
  51. Chihaya Castle
  52. Chiisagata Komaki Castle
  53. Chiisagata Komakikamino Castle
  54. Chiisagata Nakano Castle
  55. Chiisagata Nakao Castle
  56. Chiisagata Yashima Castle
  57. Chikatou Fort
  58. Chikuma Asahi Castle
  59. Chikuma Asaka Castle
  60. Chikuma Awaji Castle
  61. Chikuma Higashijou Castle
  62. Chikuma Hime Castle
  63. Chikuma Kakiage Castle
  64. Chikuma Koya Castle
  65. Chikuma Kushiki Castle
  66. Chikuma Moto Castle
  67. Chikuma Motoyama Castle
  68. Chikuma Narukami Castle
  69. Chikuma Nishijou Castle
  70. Chikuma Osaka Castle
  71. Chikuma Saruga Castle
  72. Chikuma Sasaga Castle
  73. Chikuma Sasano Castle
  74. Chikuma Sasazawa Castle
  75. Chikuma Takasu Castle
  76. Chikuma Takayama Castle
  77. Chikuma Takeda Castle
  78. Chikuma Tazawa Castle
  79. Chikuma Ueda Castle
  80. Chikuma Uenoyama Castle
  81. Chikuma Yagura Castle
  82. Chikuma Yamazaki Fort
  83. Chikuzen Sakata Castle
  84. Choujayama Castle
  85. Choujayashiki Yakata
  86. Dainenji Yakata
  87. Deura Castle
  88. Echi Aoyama Castle
  89. Echi Hatada Castle
  90. Echi Hida Castle
  91. Echi Imoto Castle
  92. Echi Kamigishimoto Castle
  93. Echi Kitabodaiji Castle
  94. Echi Nakato Castle
  95. Echi Ogura Castle
  96. Echi Shimozato Castle
  97. Echi Yamori Castle
  98. Echigo Kanayama Castle
  99. Echigo Katsuyama Castle
  100. Echigo Kiyosaki Castle
  101. Echigo Matsudai Castle
  102. Echizen Ohno Castle
  103. Egawa Fort
  104. Ema Yakata
  105. Enryakuji Higashitani Fort
  106. Enryakuji Kitatani Fort
  107. Enryakuji Nishitani Fort
  108. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  109. Fujita Castle
  110. Fukakusa Yakata
  111. Fukazawa Castle
  112. Fukuyo Castle
  113. Fumimichi Castle
  114. Funaoka Castle
  115. Funaokayama Castle
  116. Funayama Castle
  117. Furuwatari Castle
  118. Futamata Castle
  119. Futoge Castle
  120. Futoh'yama Castle
  121. Gamou Isshiki Castle
  122. Gamou Minamitsuda Castle
  123. Ganjaku Castle
  124. Gassan Toda Castle
  125. Gifu Castle
  126. Gion Castle
  127. Gobara Castle
  128. Gokan Castle
  129. Gongen Yakata
  130. Gouda Fort
  131. Haba Castle
  132. Habauehori Yashiki
  133. Hachigata Castle
  134. Hachikenchōja Castle
  135. Hachioji Castle
  136. Hagi Castle
  137. Hagikura Fort
  138. Hagiwarasuwa Castle
  139. Haibara Castle
  140. Hakusan Castle
  141. Hamada Castle
  142. Hamagawa Castle
  143. Hanamaki Castle
  144. Hanawa Castle
  145. Hanazono Castle
  146. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  147. Haneo Castle
  148. Hanishina Motai Castle
  149. Hanishina Terao Castle
  150. Haranomoto Castle
  151. Harima Hakusan Castle
  152. Hasedo Castle
  153. Hatakenaka Yakata
  154. Hatayama Castle
  155. Hatsuzawa Castle
  156. Hattori Castle (Koka)
  157. Hayaotoshi Castle
  158. Hayashikojo Castle
  159. Hayashiohjo Castle
  160. Hekirichi Jinya
  161. Hida Hirose Castle
  162. Hida Kojima Castle
  163. Hida Takayama Castle
  164. Higashi Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  165. Hikaru Castle
  166. Hiki Castle
  167. Hikobe Yashiki
  168. Hinode Castle
  169. Hirai Castle
  170. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  171. Hiraide Moated Settlement
  172. Hirakura Castle
  173. Hirase Castle
  174. Hirase Kitano Castle
  175. Hisawa Castle
  176. Hishakuyama Castle
  177. Hitachi Fuchuu Castle
  178. Hitachi Yamagata Castle
  179. Hitachi Yorii Castle
  180. Hitachi Yoshida Castle
  181. Hiyama Castle
  182. Hojo Clan Residence
  183. Horigane Yakata
  184. Horikoshi Castle
  185. Hosogaya Yakata
  186. Houzouji Yakata
  187. Hyakusaiji Castle
  188. Ibarayama Castle
  189. Ibayama Castle
  190. Ibuka Castle
  191. Ichinomiya Castle
  192. Iga Hijiyama Castle
  193. Iga Mibuno Castle
  194. Igawa Castle
  195. Iida Castle
  196. Iida Fort
  197. Iinawa Castle
  198. Ijiri Yashiki
  199. Ikenoshiri Yakata
  200. Imai Castle
  201. Imai Fort
  202. Ina Akasu Castle
  203. Ina Inamura Castle
  204. Ina Joumura Castle
  205. Ina Kasuga Castle
  206. Ina Kitano Castle
  207. Ina Kiyomizu Castle
  208. Ina Koide Castle
  209. Ina Konishi Castle
  210. Ina Korin Castle
  211. Ina Kurata Castle
  212. Ina Matsuo Castle
  213. Ina Matsushima Castle
  214. Ina Minowa Castle
  215. Ina Nagayama Castle
  216. Ina Nakagome Castle
  217. Ina Oguro Castle
  218. Ina Ohkubo Castle
  219. Ina Omotegi Castle
  220. Ina Ou Castle
  221. Ina Ryuugasaki Castle
  222. Ina Shimono Castle
  223. Ina Sokura Castle
  224. Ina Suganuma Castle
  225. Ina Suzuoka Castle
  226. Ina Takada Castle
  227. Ina Tanagi Castle
  228. Ina Tenpaku Castle
  229. Ina Yashiki
  230. Ina Yasuoka Castle
  231. Ina Yoshioka Castle
  232. Inamurafuru Castle
  233. Inuinofuru Castle
  234. Inukai Castle
  235. Ioto Castle
  236. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  237. Ishigami Castle
  238. Isobe Castle
  239. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  240. Itousakaue Fort
  241. Iwabitsu Castle
  242. Iwadono Castle
  243. Iwaki Taira Castle
  244. Iwakiri Castle
  245. Iwamura Castle
  246. Izaki Castle
  247. Izu Moriyama Castle
  248. Izu Nagahama Castle
  249. Izu Ohdairashin Castle
  250. Izumigashira Castle
  251. Jikouin Fort
  252. Jikouin Yakata
  253. Jindaiji Castle
  254. Jizen Castle (Koka)
  255. Jofukuji Castle
  256. Jouhikage Fort
  257. Joujou Castle
  258. Joumurafuru Castle
  259. Jounoue Fort
  260. Kaesa Castle
  261. Kai Asahiyama Castle
  262. Kai Koyama Castle
  263. Kai Maruyama Fort
  264. Kai Yashiro Yashiki
  265. Kakegawako Castle
  266. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  267. Kamagatake Castle
  268. Kamimakifuru Castle
  269. Kamogatake Castle
  270. Kanaiyama Castle
  271. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  272. Kanayama Castle
  273. Kanazawa Castle
  274. Kanbara Castle
  275. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  276. Kannonji Castle
  277. Kanzaki Ishibayama Castle
  278. Kanzaki Kitasudayama Castle
  279. Kanzaki Wadayama Castle
  280. Karakai Castle
  281. Karasaki Castle
  282. Karasawayama Castle
  283. Karasuyama Castle
  284. Karidako Castle
  285. Karidaoh Castle
  286. Kariya Castle
  287. Kariyahara Castle
  288. Kasama Castle
  289. Kasane Castle
  290. Kaseyama Castle
  291. Kashiwara Castle
  292. Kasugayama Castle
  293. Kasumi Castle
  294. Katsunuma Castle
  295. Katsunumashi Yakata
  296. Katsurayama Castle
  297. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  298. Kawahara Castle
  299. Kawamura Castle
  300. Kazurayama Castle
  301. Kibune Castle
  302. Kikkawa Motoharu Yakata
  303. Kirarazaka Castle
  304. Kirihara Castle
  305. Kiso Fukushima Castle
  306. Kiso Uenodan Castle
  307. Kita Kumai Castle
  308. Kita Wakamiko Castle
  309. Kitaaranami Fort
  310. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  311. Kitatsumeno Fort
  312. Kobinata Oh'yashiki
  313. Kogane Castle
  314. Koibuchi Castle
  315. Koide Ara Castle
  316. Koide Fubukikaito Castle
  317. Koide Maruyama Castle
  318. Koide Muraoka Castle
  319. Koide Uchi Castle
  320. Koide Yakushidou Castle
  321. Koike Fort
  322. Koiwatake Castle
  323. Kokokuji Castle
  324. Kokururi Castle
  325. Komaki Castle
  326. Komakijou Ohte Fort
  327. Komasawa Castle
  328. Komoro Castle
  329. Konosumiyama Castle
  330. Koori Nishiyama Castle
  331. Koraku Castle
  332. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  333. Koshibami Castle
  334. Koshigoe Castle
  335. Kosobu Yakata
  336. Kosodeonzakijinja Castle
  337. Koujin'o Castle
  338. Kounomine Castle
  339. Kouzuke Hakota Castle
  340. Kouzuke Niiya Castle
  341. Kouzuke Warabi Castle
  342. Koya Castle
  343. Koyama Castle
  344. Kozukue Castle
  345. Kozutsumi Castle
  346. Kubodera Castle
  347. Kubota Castle
  348. Kuboyashikishi Castle (Koka)
  349. Kukuri Castle
  350. Kuma Castle
  351. Kumamoto Castle
  352. Kunohe Castle
  353. Kurahone Castle
  354. Kurita Castle
  355. Kurobane Castle
  356. Kuroi Castle
  357. Kurono Castle
  358. Kuruma Castle
  359. Kururi Castle
  360. Kutsukake Castle
  361. Kuwabara Castle
  362. Kuwagatahara Noroshidai
  363. Kyouraishiminbu Yakata
  364. Machimura Fort
  365. Maeda Battery
  366. Makabe Castle
  367. Mamabe Castle
  368. Manago Castle
  369. Mariko Castle
  370. Marikoyama Fort
  371. Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  372. Masugatayama Castle
  373. Masuo Castle
  374. Matsudaira Castle
  375. Matsuida Castle
  376. Matsukura Castle
  377. Matsuo Castle
  378. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  379. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  380. Meiseireijin Fort
  381. Mikawa Kaminogou Castle
  382. Mikawa Oka Castle
  383. Mikawa Terabe Castle
  384. Mikawa Yamanaka Castle
  385. Mikkaichiba Castle
  386. Minagawa Castle
  387. Minakuchi Okayama Castle
  388. Minami Kumai Castle
  389. Minami Majino Castle
  390. Minami Sakaide Castle
  391. Minamoto no Tsunemoto Yakata
  392. Minebata Castle
  393. Minegadou Castle
  394. Mino Ikeda Castle
  395. Mino Ima Castle
  396. Mino Kaneyama Castle
  397. Mino Matsuo Castle
  398. Minochi Aiki Castle
  399. Minochi Masugata Castle
  400. Minokubi Castle
  401. Minowa Castle
  402. Misayama Castle
  403. Mito Castle
  404. Miyahara Castle
  405. Mizuban Castle
  406. Mizuki
  407. Mochizuki Castle (Koka)
  408. Mochizukishi Castle (Koka)
  409. Mogusa Castle
  410. Momochi Tamba Castle
  411. Morioka Castle
  412. Moriya Castle
  413. Moriyama Castle
  414. Moroto Castle
  415. Motosakura Castle
  416. Motosu Castle
  417. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  418. Mumo Castle
  419. Murakami Ara Castle
  420. Murakami Hanagoya Castle
  421. Murakami Hime Castle
  422. Murakami Iizuna Castle
  423. Murakami Iwasaki Castle
  424. Murakami Kamei Castle
  425. Murakami Kashiwayama Castle
  426. Murakami Katsurao Castle
  427. Murakami Kemurino Castle
  428. Murakami Kokuzousan Castle
  429. Murakami Kongouji Castle
  430. Murakami Mochikoshi Castle
  431. Murakami Monomi Castle
  432. Murakami Takatsuya Castle
  433. Murakami Torikoya Castle
  434. Murakami Toyo Castle
  435. Murakami Tsubame Castle
  436. Murakami Tsumi Castle
  437. Murakami Wagou Castle
  438. Murasame Castle (Koka)
  439. Musashi Masugatayama Castle
  440. Musashi Tenjin'yama Castle
  441. Mutsu Iwasaki Castle
  442. Myougi Castle
  443. Nabekura Castle
  444. Naegi Castle
  445. Nagabayashi Fort
  446. Nagahara Castle
  447. Nagaikeyama Fort
  448. Nagashino Castle
  449. Nagato Aoyama Castle
  450. Nagato Katsuyama Castle
  451. Nagoya Castle
  452. Nagurumi Castle
  453. Najima Castle
  454. Naka Castle
  455. Nakahara Yakata
  456. Nakamaki Castle
  457. Nakasai Castle
  458. Nakatou Castle
  459. Namioka Castle
  460. Narai Castle
  461. Narisawa Castle
  462. Narisawa Noroshidai
  463. Nasu Kanda Castle
  464. Nata Castle
  465. Natsumichi Fort
  466. Nechi Castle
  467. Nechi Kuriyama Castle
  468. Negoya Castle
  469. Nezumiana Castle
  470. Nezumiana Yakata
  471. Niitakayama Castle
  472. Nijo Castle (Tochigi)
  473. Nirayama Castle
  474. Nishijou Castle
  475. Nishikata Castle
  476. Nishina Castle
  477. Nitchuu Castle
  478. Nochiseyama Castle
  479. Noguchi Yakata
  480. Nosezakanishi Castle
  481. Nouken Castle
  482. Nouken Kurokoma Fort
  483. Nouken Nishi Fort
  484. Numata Castle
  485. Nyuunomi Castle
  486. Oba Castle
  487. Obata Castle
  488. Obata Jin'ya
  489. Obiki Castle
  490. Ochiai Yashiki
  491. Oda Castle
  492. Odaka Castle
  493. Odani Castle
  494. Odano Castle
  495. Odatsuno Yakata
  496. Odawara Castle
  497. Odoi
  498. Odori Castle
  499. Ogawa Castle
  500. Ogimachi Castle
... further results
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