Trenches

From Jcastle.info

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

The term karabori Trenches in general covers a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles and may also be called trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats in English. Karabori are dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori.Property "Glossary-Definition" (as page type) with input value "dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori." contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

Nagoya11.jpg Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches
  1. Aiki Castle (Minochi)
  2. Akagi Kita Castle
  3. Akagi Minami Castle
  4. Akasu Castle (Ina)
  5. Akatsuka Castle
  6. Akayama Jin'ya
  7. Akechi Osayama Castle
  8. Akiba Fort (Azumi)
  9. Akiyoshi Fort
  10. Akizuki Castle
  11. Akutagawasan Castle
  12. Amabiki Castle
  13. Amanari Castle
  14. Ametoya Castle
  15. Amidagamine Castle (Yamashiro)
  16. Ansho Castle
  17. Aoiyama Castle
  18. Aoki Castle (Azumi)
  19. Aoyagi Castle
  20. Aoyama Castle
  21. Aoyama Castle (Nagato)
  22. Aoyama Castle (Omi)
  23. Ara Castle (Ina)
  24. Ara Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  25. Aragaito Fort
  26. Araihara Castle
  27. Arashi Castle
  28. Aratoshou Castle
  29. Arikoyama Castle
  30. Aruga Castle
  31. Asaba Castle
  32. Asahi Castle (Chikuma)
  33. Asahiyama Castle
  34. Asahiyama Castle (Kai)
  35. Asaka Castle (Chikuma)
  36. Asakura Yakata
  37. Ashigara Castle
  38. Ashikaga Masauji Yakata
  39. Ashinoya Jin'ya
  40. Asonuma Castle
  41. Asuke Castle
  42. Awaji Castle (Chikuma)
  43. Awaya Yakata
  44. Awazawa Castle (Suwa)
  45. Ayukawa Castle (Koka)
  46. Azuchi Castle
  47. Baba Yashiki
  48. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  49. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  50. Chausudate
  51. Chausuyama Castle (Shinano)
  52. Chigasaki Castle
  53. Chihaya Castle
  54. Chikatou Fort
  55. Choujayama Castle
  56. Choujayashiki Yakata
  57. Dainenji Yakata
  58. Damine Castle
  59. Deura Castle
  60. Dokyou Castle
  61. Dousawa Fort
  62. Eboshigata Castle
  63. Echizen Ohno Castle
  64. Egawa Fort
  65. Ema Yakata
  66. Enryakuji Higashitani Fort
  67. Enryakuji Kitatani Fort
  68. Enryakuji Nishitani Fort
  69. Fubukikaito Castle (Ina)
  70. Fuchu Castle (Hitachi)
  71. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  72. Fujita Castle
  73. Fukakusa Yakata
  74. Fukayama Castle (Suruga)
  75. Fukazawa Castle
  76. Fukui Castle (Shinano)
  77. Fukushima Castle (Kiso)
  78. Fukuyo Castle
  79. Fumimichi Castle
  80. Funaoka Castle
  81. Funaokayama Castle
  82. Funayama Castle
  83. Furujouyama Castle (Hanishina)
  84. Furumiya Castle
  85. Furumiya Castle (Kai)
  86. Furuwatari Castle
  87. Fusumada Castle
  88. Futamata Castle
  89. Futatsugi Castle (Azumi)
  90. Futoge Castle
  91. Futoh'yama Castle
  92. Ganjaku Castle
  93. Ganryakuji Castle
  94. Gassan Toda Castle
  95. Genbao Castle
  96. Gentairi Castle
  97. Gifu Castle
  98. Gion Castle
  99. Gobara Castle
  100. Goi Castle (Mikawa)
  101. Gokan Castle
  102. Gongen Yakata
  103. Goryu Castle
  104. Gouda Fort
  105. Haba Castle
  106. Habauehori Yashiki
  107. Hachigata Castle
  108. Hachikenchōja Castle
  109. Hachiman'yama Castle (Tanba)
  110. Hachimanpara Jinsho
  111. Hachioji Castle
  112. Hadanashi Castle
  113. Hadanashiyama Castle
  114. Hagi Castle
  115. Hagikura Fort
  116. Hagiwarasuwa Castle
  117. Haguro Castle (Owari)
  118. Haibara Castle
  119. Hakota Castle (Kozuke)
  120. Hakoyama Castle (Takai)
  121. Hakusan Castle
  122. Hakusan Castle (Harima)
  123. Hamada Castle
  124. Hamagawa Castle
  125. Hanagoya Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  126. Hanamaki Castle
  127. Hanaoka Castle (Azumi)
  128. Hanaoka Castle (Saku)
  129. Hanasaki Castle (Tsuru)
  130. Hanawa Castle
  131. Hanazono Castle
  132. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  133. Haneo Castle
  134. Harano Castle (Suwa)
  135. Haranomoto Castle
  136. Haruyamako Castle
  137. Haruyamaoh Castle
  138. Hasedo Castle
  139. Hatada Castle (Omi)
  140. Hatakenaka Yakata
  141. Hatayama Castle
  142. Hatsuzawa Castle
  143. Hattori Castle (Koka)
  144. Hayaotoshi Castle
  145. Hayashikojo Castle
  146. Hayashiohjo Castle
  147. Hekirichi Jinya
  148. Hida Castle (Omi)
  149. Higashi Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  150. Higashijou Castle (Chikuma)
  151. Hijika Castle
  152. Hijiyama Castle (Iga)
  153. Hikaru Castle
  154. Hiki Castle
  155. Hikida Castle
  156. Hikobe Yashiki
  157. Hikone Castle
  158. Hime Castle (Chikuma)
  159. Hime Castle (Hanishina)
  160. Hinode Castle
  161. Hinohara Castle
  162. Hirai Castle
  163. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  164. Hiraide Moated Settlement
  165. Hiraizumi Date
  166. Hirakura Castle
  167. Hirase Castle
  168. Hirase Kitano Castle
  169. Hirose Castle (Hida)
  170. Hisawa Castle
  171. Hishakuyama Castle
  172. Hitomoshi Castle (Saku)
  173. Hiyama Castle
  174. Hojo Clan Residence
  175. Horigane Yakata
  176. Horikoshi Castle
  177. Hoshina Maenoyama Fort
  178. Hosogaya Yakata
  179. Houzouji Yakata
  180. Hyakusaiji Castle
  181. Ibarayama Castle
  182. Ibayama Castle
  183. Ibuka Castle
  184. Ichijodani Castle
  185. Ichijodani Kojo Castle
  186. Ichijodaniyama Castle
  187. Ichinomiya Castle
  188. Igawa Castle
  189. Iida Castle
  190. Iida Castle (Azumi)
  191. Iida Fort
  192. Iimori Castle
  193. Iimori Castle (Azumi)
  194. Iinawa Castle
  195. Iizuna Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  196. Ijiri Yashiki
  197. Ikarashi Yakata
  198. Ikeda Castle (Mino)
  199. Ikenoshiri Yakata
  200. Ima Castle (Mino)
  201. Imai Castle
  202. Imai Fort
  203. Imori Castle (Suwa)
  204. Imoto Castle (Omi)
  205. Ina Yashiki
  206. Inamura Castle (Ina)
  207. Inamurafuru Castle
  208. Inoue Castle
  209. Inoue Yakata
  210. Inoue Yakata (Shiga)
  211. Inuinofuru Castle
  212. Inukai Castle
  213. Ioto Castle
  214. Iouji Fort
  215. Isezaki Castle (Sanada)
  216. Ishibashi Castle
  217. Ishibayama Castle (Omi)
  218. Ishida Castle (Mikawa)
  219. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  220. Ishigami Castle
  221. Ishimura Castle
  222. Isobe Castle
  223. Isshiki Castle (Omi)
  224. Isshiki Castle (Suruga)
  225. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  226. Itousakaue Fort
  227. Iwabitsu Castle
  228. Iwabuchi Castle (Aida)
  229. Iwadono Castle
  230. Iwahara Castle (Azumi)
  231. Iwaki Taira Castle
  232. Iwakiri Castle
  233. Iwamura Castle
  234. Iwasaki Castle (Hanishina)
  235. Iwasaki Castle (Mutsu)
  236. Iwazu Castle
  237. Iwazushin Castle
  238. Izaki Castle
  239. Izu Nagahama Castle
  240. Izumigashira Castle
  241. Jikouin Fort
  242. Jikouin Yakata
  243. Jindaiji Castle
  244. Jizen Castle (Koka)
  245. Jofukuji Castle
  246. Jouhikage Fort
  247. Joujou Castle
  248. Joumura Castle (Ina)
  249. Joumurafuru Castle
  250. Jounoue Fort
  251. Kaesa Castle
  252. Kakegawako Castle
  253. Kakiage Castle (Chikuma)
  254. Kakutsugawa Castle
  255. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  256. Kamagatake Castle
  257. Kamaha Castle
  258. Kamei Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  259. Kameyama Castle (Azumi)
  260. Kameyama Castle (Mikawa)
  261. Kami Castle (Suwa)
  262. Kamigishimoto Castle (Omi)
  263. Kamimakifuru Castle
  264. Kaminogou Castle
  265. Kamogatake Castle
  266. Kanaiyama Castle
  267. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  268. Kanayama Castle
  269. Kanayama Castle (Echigo)
  270. Kanazawa Castle
  271. Kanbara Castle
  272. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  273. Kanemaru Yakata
  274. Kaneyama Castle (Mino)
  275. Kanmuriyama Castle (Bitchu)
  276. Kannonji Castle
  277. Karakai Castle
  278. Karasaki Castle
  279. Karasawayama Castle
  280. Karasuyama Castle
  281. Karatoriya Castle
  282. Karidako Castle
  283. Karidaoh Castle
  284. Kariya Castle
  285. Kariyahara Castle
  286. Kasama Castle
  287. Kasane Castle
  288. Kaseyama Castle
  289. Kashiwara Castle
  290. Kashiwayama Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  291. Kasuga Castle (Ina)
  292. Kasugayama Castle
  293. Kasumi Castle
  294. Kasumiga Castle (Suwa)
  295. Katsunuma Castle
  296. Katsunumashi Yakata
  297. Katsurao Castle (Hanishina)
  298. Katsurayama Castle
  299. Katsuyama Castle (Echigo)
  300. Katsuyama Castle (Nagato)
  301. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  302. Katsuyama Castle (Yatsushiro)
  303. Kawahara Castle
  304. Kawajiri Castle
  305. Kawamura Castle
  306. Kazurayama Castle
  307. Keirozan Castle
  308. Kemurino Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  309. Kibune Castle
  310. Kikkawa Motoharu Yakata
  311. Kinebuchi Yakata
  312. Kirarazaka Castle
  313. Kirihara Castle
  314. Kita Kumai Castle
  315. Kita Majino Castle
  316. Kita Wakamiko Castle
  317. Kitaaranami Fort
  318. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  319. Kitabodaiji Castle (Omi)
  320. Kitano Castle (Ina)
  321. Kitanosho Castle (Omi)
  322. Kitasudayama Castle (Omi)
  323. Kitatsumeno Fort
  324. Kitsune Castle (Azumi)
  325. Kiyomizu Castle (Ina)
  326. Kiyosaki Castle (Echigo)
  327. Kobinata Oh'yashiki
  328. Koga Castle
  329. Kogane Castle
  330. Kogane Castle (Mikawa)
  331. Koibuchi Castle
  332. Koide Castle (Ina)
  333. Koike Fort
  334. Koiwatake Castle
  335. Kojima Castle (Hida)
  336. Kokokuji Castle
  337. Kokururi Castle
  338. Kokuryou Castle (Tanba)
  339. Kokuzousan Castle (Aida)
  340. Kokuzousan Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  341. Kokuzousanminami Fort (Aida)
  342. Kokuzousannanseioneno Castle (Aida)
  343. Kokuzousannishi Fort (Aida)
  344. Komaki Castle
  345. Komaki Castle (Chiisagata)
  346. Komakijou Ohte Fort
  347. Komakikamino Castle (Chiisagata)
  348. Komasawa Castle
  349. Komatsu Castle (Sagami)
  350. Komihanachi Castle
  351. Komori Yakata (Sarashina)
  352. Komoro Castle
  353. Kongouji Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  354. Konishi Castle (Ina)
  355. Konosumiyama Castle
  356. Koori Nishiyama Castle
  357. Koraku Castle
  358. Korin Castle (Ina)
  359. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  360. Koromogawa Date
  361. Koshibami Castle
  362. Koshigoe Castle
  363. Kosobu Yakata
  364. Kosodeonzakijinja Castle
  365. Kosuge Castle
  366. Koujin'o Castle
  367. Kounomine Castle
  368. Kouyama Castle (Bingo)
  369. Koya Castle
  370. Koya Castle (Chikuma)
  371. Koyama Castle
  372. Koyama Castle (Kai)
  373. Kozukue Castle
  374. Kozutsumi Castle
  375. Kubodera Castle
  376. Kubota Castle
  377. Kubota Castle (Nukata)
  378. Kuboyashikishi Castle (Koka)
  379. Kukuri Castle
  380. Kuma Castle
  381. Kumamoto Castle
  382. Kunohe Castle
  383. Kurahone Castle
  384. Kurata Castle (Ina)
  385. Kurita Castle
  386. Kurobane Castle
  387. Kuroi Castle
  388. Kurokawashi Castle (Koka)
  389. Kurono Castle
  390. Kuruma Castle
  391. Kuruma Castle (Hanishina)
  392. Kurumayama Castle (Hanishina)
  393. Kururi Castle
  394. Kushiki Castle (Chikuma)
  395. Kutsukake Castle
  396. Kuwabara Castle
  397. Kuwagatahara Noroshidai
  398. Kuwai Castle (Mikawa)
  399. Kyara Palace
  400. Kyouraishiminbu Yakata
  401. Machimura Fort
  402. Maeda Battery
  403. Makabe Castle
  404. Mamabe Castle
  405. Manago Castle
  406. Mariko Castle
  407. Marikoyama Fort
  408. Marune Castle
  409. Maruoka Castle (Koka)
  410. Maruyama Castle (Ina)
  411. Maruyama Douen Castle
  412. Maruyama Fort (Kai)
  413. Maruyama Noutou Castle
  414. Masugata Castle (Minochi)
  415. Masugata Castle (Musashi)
  416. Masugata Castle (Suwa)
  417. Masugata Castle (Takai)
  418. Masugatayama Castle
  419. Masuo Castle
  420. Matsudai Castle (Echigo)
  421. Matsudaira Castle
  422. Matsuida Castle
  423. Matsukura Castle
  424. Matsuo Castle
  425. Matsuo Castle (Ina)
  426. Matsuo Castle (Mino)
  427. Matsushima Castle (Ina)
  428. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  429. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  430. Meiseireijin Fort
  431. Mibuno Castle (Iga)
  432. Mikka Castle (Minochi)
  433. Mikkaichiba Castle
  434. Minagawa Castle
  435. Minakuchi Okayama Castle
  436. Minami Kumai Castle
  437. Minami Majino Castle
  438. Minami Sakaide Castle
  439. Minami Tsuda Castle
  440. Minamoto no Tsunemoto Yakata
  441. Minebata Castle
  442. Minegadou Castle
  443. Minokubi Castle
  444. Minowa Castle
  445. Minowa Castle (Ina)
  446. Misayama Castle
  447. Mito Castle
  448. Miyahara Castle
  449. Mizuban Castle
  450. Mizuki
  451. Mochikoshi Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  452. Mochizuki Castle (Koka)
  453. Mochizuki Castle (Saku)
  454. Mochizukishi Castle (Koka)
  455. Mogusa Castle
  456. Momochi Tamba Castle
  457. Mondo Castle (Azumi)
  458. Monjuyama Castle
  459. Monomi Castle (Murakami Clan Fort Network)
  460. Morioka Castle
  461. Moriya Castle
  462. Moriyama Castle
  463. Moriyama Castle (Izu)
  464. Moriyama Castle (Owari)
  465. Moroto Castle
  466. Motai Castle (Hanishina)
  467. Moto Castle (Chikuma)
  468. Motodoriyama Castle
  469. Motodoriyamako Castle
  470. Motosakura Castle
  471. Motosu Castle
  472. Motoyama Castle (Chikuma)
  473. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  474. Mumo Castle
  475. Muraoka Castle (Ina)
  476. Murasame Castle (Koka)
  477. Muro Castle
  478. Myogi Castle
  479. Nabekura Castle
  480. Naegi Castle
  481. Nagabayashi Fort
  482. Nagahara Castle
  483. Nagaikeyama Fort
  484. Nagamine Fort
  485. Nagao Castle (Azumi)
  486. Nagashino Castle
  487. Nagayama Castle (Ina)
  488. Nagoya Castle
  489. Nagurumi Castle
  490. Najima Castle
  491. Naka Castle
  492. Nakaara Castle
  493. Nakagome Castle (Ina)
  494. Nakahara Yakata
  495. Nakamaki Castle
  496. Nakamura Castle (Azumi)
  497. Nakano Castle (Chiisagata)
  498. Nakanojin Castle
  499. Nakao Castle (Chiisagata)
  500. Nakao Castle (Yamashiro)
... further results
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