Trenches

From Jcastle.info

Trenches / 空堀

This is a subtype of Features

The term karabori Trenches in general covers a wide range of trench like fortifications around castles and may also be called trenches, ditches, empty moats, or dry moats in English. Karabori are dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori.Property "Glossary-Definition" (as page type) with input value "dug to prevent attackers from easily entering or moving around a castle. There are also various subtypes depending on the location in the castle and orientation such as horizontal, vertical or across a mountain ridge. There are also subtypes depending on structure like unebori and shouji-bori." contains invalid characters or is incomplete and therefore can cause unexpected results during a query or annotation process. In flatland castles they are often similar in structure to water moats but without the water. Both water moats or dry trenches have their own unique advantages and disadvantages. For example, it can be harder for intruders to hide in a dry moat and there no natural water sounds that might disguise entry. The slick clay sides of many castles in the Kanto region were especially slippery and difficult to climb. I have had a difficult time even in hiking boots getting up only slight slope where there is no grass for traction. On the other hand, water moats, where feasible, can be a good psychological deterrent. Attackers don't know how deep they are or what is underneath. A wet intruder will likely leave a trail and they will need to expend more energy to get across.

When you see photos or visit these locations yourself you may think that these trenches are shallow and would not be much of a deterrent but keep in mind that they have filled with leaves and dirt and have been eroded significantly over the last 400 years. What is now a meter or less deep may have been two or three times that deep at one time.

Some terms related to trenches that you may see include:


Horikiri (堀切)

This is a deep trench cut across a mountain ridge to impede attackers from easily climbing the ridge. You see a lot of these on the path to mountaintop castles and it's usually the first sign that you've entered a castle. Unless there are signs to point them out or you are familiar with seeing horikiri you might not notice them at all. But, if you think about it, such a sudden steep dip in a ridge is very unnatural.

Kuma4.jpg Washio26.jpg


Yokobori (横堀)

A horizontal trench across a slope or mountain. It can also provide an easier route for defenders to cross a slope.

Koshigoe9.jpg Iwabitsu33.jpg


Tatebori (竪堀)

A vertical trench running down a slope. It can be used to impede attackers from easily crossing a slope and can force them into a kill zone.

Iwabitsu34.jpg Haibara16.jpg


Unejotatebori (畝状竪堀)

Several parallel tatebori across one slope on a mountaintop castle. They may be difficult to see if the are on a steep side of the castle that you cannot get to.

Jofukuji26.jpg Kuma23.jpg


Shojibori (障子堀)

A wider trench with square depressions carved out. It forces attackers to either walk the narrow ridges and be easily fired upon or scale up and down the slick clay walls putting them in vulnerable positions and using a lot of physical energy. These are often attributed to the Hojo but the Hideyoshi's Osaka Castle had great shojibori too. Unfortunately you can not longer see them. The only really good shojibori you can see today are at Yamanaka Castle in Shizuoka but many more have been excavated and reburied over the years.

Yamanaka7.jpg Yamanaka8.jpg


Unebori (畝堀)

A trench with ridges across them. This is similar in design to the shojibori but instead of a "waffle" like design it is only a single row of dugout depressions.

Kawamura3.jpg Kawamura9.jpg


Empty Moats (空堀)

These are the moats you are more likely to see at flatland castles. They are similar in size and shape to water moats but without the water.

Nagoya11.jpg Sakura2.jpg Osaka22.jpg

Castles with Trenches
  1. Aizu Odayama Castle
  2. Akagi Kita Castle
  3. Akagi Minami Castle
  4. Akatsuka Castle
  5. Akechi Osayama Castle
  6. Akizuki Castle
  7. Akutagawasan Castle
  8. Ansho Castle
  9. Aoyagi Castle
  10. Aoyama Castle
  11. Aragaito Fort
  12. Arashi Castle
  13. Arikoyama Castle
  14. Aruga Castle
  15. Asaba Castle
  16. Asahiyama Castle
  17. Ashigara Castle
  18. Asonuma Castle
  19. Asuke Castle
  20. Azuchi Castle
  21. Azumi Iwahara Castle
  22. Azumi Kameyama Castle
  23. Azumi Kitsune Castle
  24. Azumi Mondo Castle
  25. Azumi Nagao Castle
  26. Azumi Nishimaki Castle
  27. Azumi Nishiyama Castle
  28. Azumi Ogiwara Castle
  29. Azumi Ogura Castle
  30. Azumi Oshino Castle
  31. Azumi Shibutami Castle
  32. Azumi Takisawa Castle
  33. Azumi Tanoiri Castle
  34. Azumi Taya Castle
  35. Baba Yashiki
  36. Bingo Kouyama Castle
  37. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  38. Bitchu Takamatsu Castle
  39. Chausudate
  40. Chigasaki Castle
  41. Chihaya Castle
  42. Chikatou Fort
  43. Chikuma Asahi Castle
  44. Chikuma Awaji Castle
  45. Chikuma Koya Castle
  46. Chikuma Kushiki Castle
  47. Chikuma Motoyama Castle
  48. Chikuma Osaka Castle
  49. Chikuma Saruga Castle
  50. Chikuma Takasu Castle
  51. Chikuma Takayama Castle
  52. Chikuma Takeda Castle
  53. Chikuma Tazawa Castle
  54. Chikuma Ueda Castle
  55. Chikuma Uenoyama Castle
  56. Chikuzen Sakata Castle
  57. Choujayama Castle
  58. Choujayashiki Yakata
  59. Dainenji Yakata
  60. Echizen Ohno Castle
  61. Egawa Fort
  62. Ema Yakata
  63. Fujihashi Castle (Tokyo)
  64. Fujita Castle
  65. Fukakusa Yakata
  66. Fukazawa Castle
  67. Fukuyo Castle
  68. Fumimichi Castle
  69. Funaoka Castle
  70. Funaokayama Castle
  71. Funayama Castle
  72. Furuwatari Castle
  73. Futamata Castle
  74. Futoge Castle
  75. Futoh'yama Castle
  76. Ganjaku Castle
  77. Gassan Toda Castle
  78. Gifu Castle
  79. Gion Castle
  80. Gobara Castle
  81. Gokan Castle
  82. Gongen Yakata
  83. Gouda Fort
  84. Haba Castle
  85. Habauehori Yashiki
  86. Hachigata Castle
  87. Hachikenchōja Castle
  88. Hachioji Castle
  89. Hagi Castle
  90. Hagikura Fort
  91. Haibara Castle
  92. Hakusan Castle
  93. Hamada Castle
  94. Hanamaki Castle
  95. Hanawa Castle
  96. Hanazono Castle
  97. Hanazono Mitake Castle
  98. Hanishina Motai Castle
  99. Hanishina Terao Castle
  100. Haranomoto Castle
  101. Harima Hakusan Castle
  102. Hasedo Castle
  103. Hatakenaka Yakata
  104. Hatayama Castle
  105. Hatsuzawa Castle
  106. Hayaotoshi Castle
  107. Hayashikojo Castle
  108. Hayashiohjo Castle
  109. Hekirichi Jinya
  110. Hida Kojima Castle
  111. Hida Takayama Castle
  112. Hikaru Castle
  113. Hikobe Yashiki
  114. Hirai Castle
  115. Hirai Kanayama Castle
  116. Hiraide Moated Settlement
  117. Hirase Castle
  118. Hirase Kitano Castle
  119. Hisawa Castle
  120. Hishakuyama Castle
  121. Hitachi Yamagata Castle
  122. Hitachi Yorii Castle
  123. Hitachi Yoshida Castle
  124. Hiyama Castle
  125. Hojo Clan Residence
  126. Horigane Yakata
  127. Horikoshi Castle
  128. Hosogaya Yakata
  129. Houzouji Yakata
  130. Hyakusaiji Castle
  131. Ibuka Castle
  132. Ichinomiya Castle
  133. Igawa Castle
  134. Iida Castle
  135. Iida Fort
  136. Iinawa Castle
  137. Ikenoshiri Yakata
  138. Imai Castle
  139. Imai Fort
  140. Ina Akasu Castle
  141. Ina Inamura Castle
  142. Ina Joumura Castle
  143. Ina Kasuga Castle
  144. Ina Kitano Castle
  145. Ina Kiyomizu Castle
  146. Ina Koide Castle
  147. Ina Kokuro Castle
  148. Ina Konishi Castle
  149. Ina Korin Castle
  150. Ina Kurata Castle
  151. Ina Matsuo Castle
  152. Ina Matsushima Castle
  153. Ina Minowa Castle
  154. Ina Muraoka Castle
  155. Ina Nagayama Castle
  156. Ina Nakagome Castle
  157. Ina Ohkubo Castle
  158. Ina Omotegi Castle
  159. Ina Ou Castle
  160. Ina Ryuugasaki Castle
  161. Ina Shimono Castle
  162. Ina Sokura Castle
  163. Ina Suganuma Castle
  164. Ina Suzuoka Castle
  165. Ina Takada Castle
  166. Ina Tanagi Castle
  167. Ina Yasuoka Castle
  168. Ina Yoshioka Castle
  169. Inamurafuru Castle
  170. Inuinofuru Castle
  171. Inukai Castle
  172. Ishigakiyama Ichiya Castle
  173. Ishigami Castle
  174. Isobe Castle
  175. Itazuke Moated Settlement
  176. Itousakaue Fort
  177. Iwabitsu Castle
  178. Iwadono Castle
  179. Iwaki Taira Castle
  180. Iwakiri Castle
  181. Iwamura Castle
  182. Izu Moriyama Castle
  183. Izu Nagahama Castle
  184. Izu Ohdairashin Castle
  185. Izumigashira Castle
  186. Jindaiji Castle
  187. Jofukuji Castle
  188. Joujou Castle
  189. Joumurafuru Castle
  190. Jounoue Fort
  191. Kaesa Castle
  192. Kamaenohaka Yakata
  193. Kamagatake Castle
  194. Kamimakifuru Castle
  195. Kamogatake Castle
  196. Kanaiyama Castle
  197. Kanao Yogaisan Castle
  198. Kanayama Castle
  199. Kanazawa Castle
  200. Kanegasaki Castle (Iwate)
  201. Kannonji Castle
  202. Karakai Castle
  203. Karasaki Castle
  204. Karasawayama Castle
  205. Karasuyama Castle
  206. Kariya Castle
  207. Kasama Castle
  208. Kasane Castle
  209. Kaseyama Castle
  210. Kashiwara Castle
  211. Kasugayama Castle
  212. Kasumi Castle
  213. Katsunuma Castle
  214. Katsunumashi Yakata
  215. Katsuyama Castle (Tsuru)
  216. Kawahara Castle
  217. Kawamura Castle
  218. Kazurayama Castle
  219. Kikkawa Motoharu Yakata
  220. Kirihara Castle
  221. Kiso Fukushima Castle
  222. Kiso Uenodan Castle
  223. Kita Kumai Castle
  224. Kitabatakeshi Yakata
  225. Kobinata Oh'yashiki
  226. Kogane Castle
  227. Koike Fort
  228. Koiwatake Castle
  229. Kokokuji Castle
  230. Komaki Castle
  231. Komoro Castle
  232. Konosumiyama Castle
  233. Koori Nishiyama Castle
  234. Koriyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  235. Koshibami Castle
  236. Koshigoe Castle
  237. Kounomine Castle
  238. Kouzuke Hakota Castle
  239. Kouzuke Niiya Castle
  240. Kouzuke Warabi Castle
  241. Koyama Castle
  242. Kozukue Castle
  243. Kubodera Castle
  244. Kubota Castle
  245. Kukuri Castle
  246. Kuma Castle
  247. Kumamoto Castle
  248. Kunohe Castle
  249. Kurahone Castle
  250. Kurita Castle
  251. Kurobane Castle
  252. Kuroi Castle
  253. Kurono Castle
  254. Kururi Castle
  255. Kutsukake Castle
  256. Kuwabara Castle
  257. Kuwagatahara Noroshidai
  258. Machimura Fort
  259. Maeda Battery
  260. Mamabe Castle
  261. Manago Castle
  262. Mariko Castle
  263. Masugatayama Castle
  264. Masuo Castle
  265. Matsudaira Castle
  266. Matsuida Castle
  267. Matsukura Castle
  268. Matsuo Castle
  269. Matsuyama Castle (Gunma)
  270. Matsuyama Castle (Saitama)
  271. Meiseireijin Fort
  272. Mikawa Terabe Castle
  273. Minagawa Castle
  274. Minami Kumai Castle
  275. Minami Majino Castle
  276. Minami Sakaide Castle
  277. Minamoto no Tsunemoto Yakata
  278. Minebata Castle
  279. Mino Ikeda Castle
  280. Mino Ima Castle
  281. Mino Kaneyama Castle
  282. Minochi Aiki Castle
  283. Minochi Katsurayama Castle
  284. Minochi Masugata Castle
  285. Minokubi Castle
  286. Minowa Castle
  287. Misayama Castle
  288. Mito Castle
  289. Miyahara Castle
  290. Mizuban Castle
  291. Mizuki
  292. Mogusa Castle
  293. Morioka Castle
  294. Moriya Castle
  295. Moriyama Castle
  296. Moroto Castle
  297. Motosakura Castle
  298. Motosu Castle
  299. Mukaihaguroyama Castle
  300. Mumo Castle
  301. Murakami Hime Castle
  302. Murakami Iwasaki Castle
  303. Murakami Kamei Castle
  304. Murakami Katsurao Castle
  305. Murakami Kemurino Castle
  306. Murakami Kokuzousan Castle
  307. Murakami Monomi Castle
  308. Murakami Takatsuya Castle
  309. Murakami Torikoya Castle
  310. Murakami Tsumi Castle
  311. Murakami Wagou Castle
  312. Musashi Masugatayama Castle
  313. Musashi Tenjin'yama Castle
  314. Mutsu Iwasaki Castle
  315. Myougi Castle
  316. Nabekura Castle
  317. Naegi Castle
  318. Nagabayashi Fort
  319. Nagaikeyama Fort
  320. Nagashino Castle
  321. Nagato Aoyama Castle
  322. Nagato Katsuyama Castle
  323. Nagoya Castle
  324. Nagurumi Castle
  325. Najima Castle
  326. Naka Castle
  327. Nakahara Yakata
  328. Nakasai Castle
  329. Nakatou Castle
  330. Namioka Castle
  331. Narisawa Castle
  332. Nasu Kanda Castle
  333. Nata Castle
  334. Negoya Castle
  335. Niitakayama Castle
  336. Nijo Castle (Tochigi)
  337. Nirayama Castle
  338. Nishijou Castle
  339. Nishikata Castle
  340. Nishina Castle
  341. Nitchuu Castle
  342. Nochiseyama Castle
  343. Noguchi Yakata
  344. Numata Castle
  345. Oba Castle
  346. Obata Castle
  347. Obata Jin'ya
  348. Obiki Castle
  349. Oda Castle
  350. Odaka Castle
  351. Odani Castle
  352. Odano Castle
  353. Odawara Castle
  354. Odoi
  355. Odori Castle
  356. Ogawa Castle
  357. Ogimachi Castle
  358. Ogoe Castle
  359. Oguchi Castle
  360. Ogura Castle
  361. Ogurayamagami Castle
  362. Ogyu Castle
  363. Oh'eda Castle
  364. Oh'ide Castle
  365. Oh'idefuru Castle
  366. Oh'ikemurayama Castle
  367. Ohga Castle
  368. Ohguma Castle
  369. Ohhara Castle
  370. Ohkusa Castle
  371. Ohmine Castle
  372. Ohmori Castle
  373. Ohtawara Castle
  374. Oike Fort
  375. Okami Castle
  376. Okkoshi Castle
  377. Oko Castle
  378. Omi Castle
  379. Omifuru Castle
  380. Oniba Castle
  381. Oogo Castle
  382. Oomizo Castle
  383. Ori Castle
  384. Osaka Castle (Ibaraki)
  385. Oumi Aoyama Castle
  386. Oumi Hatada Castle
  387. Oumi Imoto Castle
  388. Oumi Isshiki Castle
  389. Oumi Kamigishimoto Castle
  390. Oumi Kitabodaiji Castle
  391. Oumi Nakato Castle
  392. Oumi Ogura Castle
  393. Oumi Shimozato Castle
  394. Oumi Yamori Castle
  395. Owari Haguro Castle
  396. Owari Moriyama Castle
  397. Owari Ogawa Castle
  398. Owari Ohno Castle
  399. Rikan Castle
  400. Ryuusenji Castle
  401. Saimyouji Castle
  402. Sakasai Castle
  403. Sakata Castle
  404. Sakura Castle
  405. Sakurazakaue Fort
  406. Sanada Isezaki Castle
  407. Sanada Negoya Castle
  408. Sanada Palace
  409. Sanada Seba Castle
  410. Sanada Yazawa Castle
  411. Sanadahonjo Castle
  412. Sano Castle
  413. Saraki Jin'ya
  414. Sarashina Osaka Castle
  415. Sasao Castle
  416. Sasayama Castle
  417. Sashiki Castle
  418. Sasou Castle
  419. Sawayama Castle
  420. Seirin Fort
  421. Seiryuin
  422. Seiryuuji Yakata
  423. Sekinomori Castle
  424. Senpuku Castle
  425. Setagaya Castle
  426. Shakujii Castle
  427. Shibukawa Yorii Castle
  428. Shigiyama Castle
  429. Shimizu Castle
  430. Shimofuri Fort
  431. Shimomakifuru Castle
  432. Shimosaka Yakata
  433. Shimura Castle
  434. Shinagura Castle
  435. Shinano Chausuyama Castle
  436. Shingu Castle
  437. Shinpu Castle
  438. Shioda Castle
  439. Shiozaki Castle
  440. Shiozakishin Castle
  441. Shirasawa Fort
  442. Shishiku Castle
  443. Shiwa Castle
  444. Souma Nakamura Castle
  445. Suemori Castle
  446. Sugaya Yakata
  447. Sugiyama Castle
  448. Suwa Imori Castle
  449. Suwa Kami Castle
  450. Suwa Osaka Castle
  451. Suwa Owa Castle
  452. Suwa Sakura Castle
  453. Suwa Shimo Castle
  454. Suwa Takagi Castle
  455. Suwa Takei Castle
  456. Suwa Tezuka Castle
  457. Suwahara Castle
  458. Tada Kasuke Yashiki
  459. Tagayashi Yakata
  460. Tage Castle
  461. Takagifuru Castle
  462. Takagiuchi Castle
  463. Takaharasuwa Castle
  464. Takahata Castle
  465. Takai Castle
  466. Takai Hakoyama Castle
  467. Takamatsuyakushi Castle
  468. Takamifuru Castle
  469. Takanashi Yakata
  470. Takane Castle
  471. Takasaka Yakata
  472. Takatenjin Castle
  473. Takato Castle
  474. Takatome Castle
  475. Takatori Castle
  476. Takatsuki Castle (Tokyo)
  477. Takayama Castle (Hiroshima)
  478. Takayashikidate
  479. Takeda Castle
  480. Takei Castle
  481. Taki Castle
  482. Takiyama Castle
  483. Tamaru Castle
  484. Tanagura Castle
  485. Tanba Hachiman'yama Castle
  486. Tanba Kokuryou Castle
  487. Tanba Nomura Castle
  488. Tanba Tonbori Castle
  489. Tateyama Castle (Yamagata)
  490. Tatsuno Castle
  491. Tekozuka Castle
  492. Tenjin'yama Castle
  493. Tenjinyama Castle (Hiroshima)
  494. Tenpaku Castle
  495. Terao Chausuyama Castle
  496. Terao Naka Castle
  497. Teshiro Castle
  498. Toba Yakata
  499. Tobiyama Castle
  500. Todoroki Castle
... further results
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