Walls

From Jcastle.info

Walls / 塀

This is a subtype of Features

Dobei are the white walls you commonly see at castles. They are the simplest and most inexpensive defenses available. Dobei originally lined the top of most moats, stone walls and encircled most of the baileys linking together gates and yagura. Many castles had at least one kilometer of walls and Edo Castle had more than 10km. Despite the fact that there were so many such walls during the Edo Period, if you added up all the extant walls today you would only find a little over a kilometer. The majority of extant walls are at Himeji Castle and the longest single extant section is the Nagabei at Kumamoto Castle. These walls evolved from simple structures of wooden planks nailed to a fence. The walls were strengthened and thickened to prevent arrows from piercing them, to prevent fire and later to prevent bullets from easily passing through.

Matsuyama22.jpg Marugame2.jpg Kanazawa122.jpg Sakasai15.jpg


Structure

Dobei walls are built by erecting pillars approximately 1.5 meters apart. In between the pillars is a lattice of bamboo or wood strips. Mud and clay were then layered over this lattice up to about 20cm thick. The clay was often mixed with some strong Japanese grass (wara) for added strength and to prevent cracks. Earlier forms of these walls were not covered in plaster which gave them a sandy yellow color. In the picture above from Sakasai Castle you can see a wall with no plaster that shows this yellow color and you can also make out some grasses embedded in the clay. Edo Period dobei were usually covered in hard white plaster which increased their strength and helped prevent weathering. Atop the wall they had tile roofs and often had loopholes for firing arrows or guns. Walls also frequently had support posts behind them to increase their strength especially for walls along the top of stone walls or other places where the foundation was not as solid. Some walls also contained strategically placed rock chutes to drop rocks on attackers. Click the pictures below to enlarge these displays of wall construction.

Utsunomiya8.jpg Utsunomiya9.jpg Odawara24.jpg Kanazawa218.jpg


Variations

There are some extant variations of these walls that can be divided into neribei and tuijibei. Neither of these have the kind of wooden pillars or interior framework of the usual walls. Neribei are constructed from dried clay bricks or old tiles that are mortared together with clay and covered with a layer of hard plaster. Neribei were employed at Himeji and Bitchu Matsuyama castles to quickly build some walls.

Tuijibei are made from pounding a mixture sand and clay in 3-5 cm layers. They are about 1 meter thick and up to 3 meters tall. They have a distinctive wooden framework on the outside and are topped with a tile roof. These are very strong walls, but their thickness makes it impossible to build in loopholes and they are very time and labor intensive to build. For these reasons they were not commonly used at castles. There is a small section by the Mizu no Ichi gate at Himeji Castle and the Ninomaru of Nijo Castle is surrounded by impressive Tsuijibei.

Himeji34.jpg Himeji7.jpg Nijo17.jpg Shiwa15.jpg


Loopholes / Sama (狭間)

Loopholes were holes built into the walls for firing arrows or guns. Loopholes designed for arrows were generally tall rectangles and those for firearms were circles, triangles, or squares. Some loopholes were hidden by a door or plug that matched the surface on the outside to prevent detection by attackers. These are called kakushizama as you see in the last two photos below.

Himeji33.jpg Himeji35.jpg Hikone98.jpg Ozu53.jpg

Castles with Walls
  1. Aizu Wakamatsu Castle
  2. Akashi Castle
  3. Akechi Osayama Castle
  4. Akita Castle
  5. Akizuki Castle
  6. Ako Castle
  7. Amagajo
  8. Amagasaki Castle
  9. Aoyagi Castle
  10. Ashinoya Jin'ya
  11. Asuke Castle
  12. Baba Yashiki
  13. Bitchu Matsuyama Castle
  14. Echizen Katsuyama Castle
  15. Edo Castle
  16. Ema Yakata
  17. Fukuchiyama Castle
  18. Fukui Castle
  19. Fukuyama Castle
  20. Funai Castle
  21. Fushimi Castle
  22. Ganjaku Castle
  23. Gujo Hachiman Castle
  24. Ha Castle
  25. Hachigata Castle
  26. Hagi Castle
  27. Hamamatsu Castle
  28. Hanamaki Castle
  29. Hikone Castle
  30. Himeji Castle
  31. Hiraizumi Date
  32. Hirosaki Castle
  33. Hiroshima Castle
  34. Honshouji Castle
  35. Hotta no Saku
  36. Ichijodani Castle
  37. Ide Yakata
  38. Iga Ueno Castle
  39. Iida Castle
  40. Iijima Jin'ya
  41. Iji Castle
  42. Ikeda Castle
  43. Imabari Castle
  44. Iwamura Castle
  45. Iyo Matsuyama Castle
  46. Izushi Castle
  47. Kakegawa Castle
  48. Kaminoyama Castle
  49. Kamioka Castle
  50. Kanazawa Castle
  51. Kashima Castle (Hizen)
  52. Katsumoto Castle
  53. Kawahara Castle
  54. Kawasaki no Saku
  55. Kinowa Castle
  56. Kishiwada Castle
  57. Kiyosu Castle
  58. Kofu Castle
  59. Koiwatake Castle
  60. Kokura Castle
  61. Kumamoto Castle
  62. Kuriyagawa no Saku
  63. Kyara Palace
  64. Marugame Castle
  65. Maruoka Castle
  66. Matsue Castle
  67. Matsumae Castle
  68. Matsumoto Castle
  69. Matsushiro Castle
  70. Miki Castle
  71. Minakuchi Castle
  72. Mito Castle
  73. Nabari Jinya
  74. Nabebuta Castle
  75. Nagata Jin'ya
  76. Nagisa Castle
  77. Nagoya Castle
  78. Nakatsu Castle
  79. Nanokaichi Jin'ya
  80. Ne Castle
  81. Nihonmatsu Castle
  82. Nijo Castle
  83. Nishio Castle
  84. Nishiohhira Jin'ya
  85. Obata Jin'ya
  86. Obi Castle
  87. Odawara Castle
  88. Ogaki Castle
  89. Oguchi Castle
  90. Ogurayama Castle
  91. Ohmine Castle
  92. Ohmori Daikansho
  93. Ohtsuka Moated Settlement
  94. Okayama Castle
  95. Okutono Jin'ya
  96. Osaka Castle
  97. Oshi Castle
  98. Otaki Castle
  99. Saga Castle
  100. Sakasai Castle
  101. Sannohe Castle
  102. Sasayama Castle
  103. Sekiyado Castle
  104. Sendai Castle
  105. Shibata Castle
  106. Shimabara Castle
  107. Shirakawa Castle
  108. Shiroishi Castle
  109. Shiwa Castle
  110. Sonobe Castle
  111. Suibara Daikansho
  112. Sunpu Castle
  113. Takada Castle (Niigata)
  114. Takamatsu Castle
  115. Takane Castle
  116. Takasaki Castle
  117. Takashima Castle
  118. Takayama Jin'ya
  119. Takeda Yakata (Ibaraki)
  120. Tanabe Castle
  121. Tanabe Castle (Wakayama)
  122. Tanaka Castle
  123. Tatebayashi Castle
  124. Tatsuno Castle
  125. Tatsuoka Castle
  126. Tomioka Castle
  127. Torigoe Castle
  128. Toyama Castle
  129. Toyoda Tachi
  130. Tsu Castle
  131. Tsuchiura Castle
  132. Tsukikuma Castle
  133. Tsurugaoka Castle
  134. Tsutsujigasaki Palace
  135. Tsuyama Castle
  136. Ueda Castle
  137. Ueno Yashiki
  138. Usuki Castle
  139. Utsunomiya Castle
  140. Wakayama Castle
  141. Yamagata Castle
  142. Yamaguchi Yashiki
  143. Yamato Koriyama Castle
  144. Yuzuki Castle
  145. Zeze Castle
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